Zaitseva Gora, Kaluga region: history, memorial, photo, where is it located?
Who knows where Zaitsev Mountain is located in the Kaluga region? About its history and attractions and will be discussed further in the article.
Zaitseva Gora (Kaluga region): history
The first mention of the Kaluga province began from the time of the Tatar-Mongol yoke in the XIII century. Since it was located in the south-west of the capital, none of the enemies could not escape this place. When the confrontation of the Russian and Tatar-Mongolian troops began, the latter retreated, never accepting the battle. Then the Kaluga province fought with the Crimean Tatars, and later with the French, but the conquerors never could take this place by force.
The last battle and the worst was at the time of the Great Patriotic War, and Zaitsev Mountain was at the center of the developing events.
Beginning of the war
When the forces of the Soviet army were assembled near the named mountain, the soldiers, despite their losses, tried by all means to block the advance of the enemy to the Warsaw highway, which was the main route to Moscow.
The beginning of the war was a difficult time, and for almost a year the military had to conduct strategic defense operations, being cut off from the main forces.
It was an important object, because the one who owned Zaitsev Mountain in the Kaluga region had an advantage due to its height of almost 300 meters. From there, a view of the enemy forces was opened, and it was always possible to prepare for battle in advance. This mountain helped the Soviet army to overcome the first difficulties of the war.
Zaitsev Mountain in the Kaluga region, the photo of which you have the opportunity to see in the article, impeded the movement of any kind of ground transportation - both road and rail. With its help, the passage in the area of Kirov and Baryatin was kept under control for cars, as well as for trains going to Smolensk-Sukhinichi. And throughout the war, the enemy who captured this place kept nearby populated cities and villages in a cordon. Only thanks to the forces of the national militia of the Kaluga region, which were able to unite the troops, managed to plunge the cruel enemy.
Tasks of the Soviet Army
Despite the fact that there were two times more Soviet troops than opponents, they had an advantage due to the minefields and kilometers of moats and fortifications.In addition, the Nazis had a lot of aircraft that controlled the situation from the sky.
When the Soviet Army suffered serious losses and was in the ring, the battle seemed to be lost.
In 1942, during the Rzhev-Vyazemsky offensive, the main battle took place just on Zaitsev Mountain. Then, on the orders of the commander-in-chief, the 50th Army was to create a bridgehead for the escaping troops, but nothing came of them, and they suffered heavy losses. Only due to the occasion in 1943, the fascists left Zaitsev Mountain without a fight, sending their divisions to Kursk and Orel.
Since the Germans owned the Warsaw Highway at that time and delivered ammunition and foodstuffs through it, our army was faced with the task rather to get out of the encirclement and move towards Vyazma. Therefore, it was necessary to take the mountain at any cost (there was no hope for a tank division, and the place itself was completely surrounded by artillerymen), while the Soviet troops, having made a tunnel, 200 meters long, did not smash the German fortifications with explosives. The explosion was so powerful that they even detonated mines from the enemy’s death field.
The battle for this historic place was bloody, but the avalanche of troops storming from our side won, and by the end of the day the banner of the Soviet Army was hanging there.
And now archaeologists still find the remains of the dead or the arsenal left over from the time of the war.
Museum "Zaitsev Mountain"
This historic site was discovered on Victory Day in 1972 on the site of one of the most tragic places of war. It is also a museum-local history complex of the Kaluga Museum-Reserve. The first visitors here were veterans who passed the deadly battle. And in the last decade of the last century it opened an exhibition hall dedicated to the Great Patriotic War, where about five thousand exhibits were collected.
Traveling through the military-historical museum, each tourist will be able to plunge into the past era of the past tragedy. Here you can see reliable materials about how our troops during the year carried out a digging to a depth of 15 meters and undermined 25 tons of explosives, destroying 400 fascist soldiers and officers. On the gravestones near the monument, people read the names of the departed soldiers who defended this place, which is popularly referred to as the Height of suicide bombers.
In the historical museum is the layout of the tunnel and fortifications. There is also an exposition of soldiers' medallions, and, judging by the superstitions of those who fought, everyone who wore a similar medallion was considered a suicide bomber. Medallions found little during archaeological excavations.And this was explained by the fact that the soldiers threw them out beforehand and did not fill in the inserts on their receipt. The documents mention that these soldiers did not want to be identified after the battle, and they warned their relatives about possible death in advance.
Zaitsev Mountain is located in the Kaluga region, Baryatinsky district. If you get by car along the Warsaw highway to the village of Tsvetovka, which is near the village of Zaitseva Gora, you can follow the direction of Spas-Demensk, one and a half kilometers from the village of Fomino. And only then the tourist will get to the destination.
Zaitseva Mountain Complex
The described complex contains a military history museum of military glory, a funnel that has been preserved since the war, when there was a battle for height, a memorial with a monument and tools and the burial of fallen soldiers.
In the last decade of the last century, a chapel was erected near the museum in honor of the dead soldiers who defended this place. But at the moment the temple is not active, and the throne was not consecrated.
The entrance to the complex for an adult costs 50 rubles, and for children - 20 rubles. Pensioners with a certificate may visit this historic complex for 40 rubles.
Memorial to sappers
The sappers of the 50th army accomplished the impossible during the war: the crater formed after the explosion of 25 tons of explosives amazes with its size. It can be seen on the territory of the museum today. And in memory of the dead, near the memorial on Zaytsevskaya Gora (Kaluga region) the Eternal Flame is burning.
Hunting and fishing on Zaitseva Mountain
Now described places are also known for hunting areas, which belong to the Kaluga region. Equestrian hunting or hunting with black hounds for grouse is considered the most popular in this region. In the spring you can get wood grouses. Those who prefer to go for a bird with dogs, may try their luck in hunting waterfowl.
Among professionals, the main objects are wild boars, hares, moose, beavers, hazel grouses and a raccoon dog.
Near Lake Bezdon, in the territory of the recreation center "Zaitseva Gora" in the Kaluga region are located cottages with a hotel, its bar and restaurant, as well as a banquet hall. The territory is equipped with beautiful gazebos and barbecues for those who want to make their own barbecue. Meat and liquid for ignition can be purchased at the store.
The lake itself is a great place for fishing, and is also popular with scuba divers.Its depth does not exceed 35 meters, and here you can catch bream, carp, perch, pike, crucian carp, rudd, etc.
By the way, at the bottom of the lake there is a crashed plane since the Great Patriotic War.
To get to the lake Bezdon can be on Warsaw highway, but the guards do not let into the base, blocking the road with a barrier.