Why the biography Malyuta Skuratova romanticized in the Stalin years
Not everyone can perform work on the organizationsecurity authoritarian regime. Requires a special personal qualities, the main of which has always been cruelty. The tyrant in its nature needs fear, this feeling is based on his unlimited power.
But no matter how difficult this service is, alwaysthere is someone who is ready to carry it. Because of the back of each dictator with unlimited powers looms the inconspicuous silhouette of the head of the secret police. On the documentary frames of the 1930s, behind the gray Stalinist jacket, there is no-no, and the flickering Yezhov's figure flashes in his tunic, belted by a wide officer's belt, and the pince-nez of "the glorious Henry" flashes from behind Hitler's sloping shoulder.
There was someone to look after and stooped back IvanIV, not without reason called Grozny. Grigory Belsky reliably ensured him the opportunity to reign, without fear of trouble and conspiracies. Biography Malyuta Skuratov, and this was the "creative pseudonym" of this head of power structures at the court of a formidable autocrat, typical for the brains of a master of any era.
Rod Grigory was either from under Smolensk, orfrom Pereslavl-Zalessky. The difficulty in determining the origin of an outstanding executioner is that it has to be judged from indirect sources. Personal affairs during the reign of Ivan the Terrible did not start, and the chronicle, that is, the fixation of historical facts, in 1568 in general was banned by a special royal decree. Belsky himself had to follow the observance of this order. Thus, the biography of Malyuta Skuratov, especially the events of his youth, is vague. Supposedly he had two brothers, Nezhdan and Jacob, but their fate is unknown.
It is mistakenly believed that Grigory (Malyuta -nickname, meaning "short", and the word "skurat" is translated into modern language as rough skin, obviously, a hint of unhealthy complexion) created a secret police of Ivan the Terrible, a kind of special forces, typing people unprincipled and cruel. This is not so, he already made a career in this state body created by Alexey Basmanov, Vasily Yuryev and Afanasy Vyazemsky. These three nobles announced a kind of competition, to which twelve thousand volunteers responded, so there were no problems with personnel for the future power department. The number of vacancies was originally determined in 570 staff units. One of them was taken by Malyuta Skuratov. Oprichnina first took it cool, the post was not high, just a sexton.
However, natural cruelty facilitatedpromotion through the ranks. At Gubin, the fiefdom of the boyar Chelyadinin-Fedorov, who fell into disfavor, the sexton "finished" (the so-called enforcement of the extrajudicial sentence) 39 people at once. And after he distinguished himself in the delivery to the highest court of women, intended for the perverted royal comfort, the biography of Malyuta Skuratova made a sharp turn. Together with Ivan the Terrible, he began to take part in torture, he was charged with the arrest of not someone, but the cousin of the king, Prince Staritsky.
It is possible that some of the conspiracies wereinspired or staged by the head of the special services in order to once again prove his usefulness and usefulness. The enthusiasm of the new chief of the secret police reached the point where he dealt with his loved ones practically without rest. House Malyuta Skuratova became a branch of his workplace. The most cynical of the reprisals, which he made for his life full of professional achievements, was the assassination of Metropolitan Philip, fearlessly opposed to royal tyranny.
In the Stalin years the biography of Malyuta Skuratovawas subjected to a certain editing, by means of which the historians of the thirties tried to create the image of Ivan the Terrible as a strict but generally positive ruler and statist. With such a view of historical events, the issues of state security were to be handled by a stern, strong-willed man, but in general, pretty. The death of Malyuta during the storming of the castle Veysenenstein became, as it were, a heroic end to the life of the "outstanding figure of the era".
For the sake of justice, it is necessary to note the unselfishness of Grigory Malyuta Skuratov-Belsky. He did not make wealth, Ivan IV even had a pension for his widow, which he usually did not do.