"Who lives well in Russia": heroes. Nekrasov, "To whom in Russia live well": a summary
From 1863 to 1877 he created Nekrasov "To whomRussia's life is good. "The idea, heroes, plot changed several times in the process of work, most likely, the idea was not completely revealed: the author died in 1877. Despite this," Who lives well in Russia "as a folk poem is considered a complete work It was assumed that there would be 8 parts in it, but only 4 could be completed.
With the presentation of characters begins the poem "Toin Russia, to live well. "These heroes are seven peasants from villages: Dyryavino, Zaplatovo, Gorelovo, Neuroezhaika, Znobishino, Razutovo, Neelovo, they meet and talk about who lives happily in Russia. one thinks that the landowner is happy, the other is that he is an official, and the merchant, the priest, the minister, the noble boyar, the king of the peasants from the poem "To Whom in Russia Live Well." The heroes began to argue and lit a fire. However, they have not succeeded in reaching agreement.
Suddenly Pakhom unexpectedly caught a nestling. A small chiffchaff, his mother, asked the peasant to release the chick to freedom. She prompted for this, where you can find a tablecloth-samoranku - a very useful thing, which is certainly useful in a long journey. Thanks to her, the men during the trip did not lack food.
The story of the priest
The following work continues the work"Who lives well in Russia". The heroes decided to find out at any cost who lives happily and cheerfully in Russia. They went on the road. First on the way they met a priest. The peasants turned to him with a question about whether he was happily living. Then the priest told about his life. He believes (in which the men could not disagree with him) that happiness is impossible without rest, honor, wealth. Pop believes that if he had it all, he would be completely happy. However, he is obliged to go to day and night, in any weather, where he will be told - to the dying, to the sick. Every time the ass has to see human grief and suffering. He even sometimes lacks the strength to take for the service of retribution, because people are tearing themselves away from themselves. Once everything was completely different. Pop says he was generously rewarded by his wealthy landowners for funerals, baptisms, and weddings. But now the rich are far away, but the poor have no money. The priest also has no honor: he is not respected by peasants, as many folk songs speak about.
Wanderers go to the fair
Wanderers understand that one can not be called happythis person, which marks the author of the work "To Whom in Russia to Live Well". Heroes again set out on their way and find themselves on the road in the village of Kuzminsky, at the fair. This village is dirty, although rich. There are a lot of establishments in it, in which residents indulge in drunkenness. They drink their last money. For example, the old man did not have money for his grandmother's shoes, since he drank everything. All this is observed by pilgrims from the work "To Whom in Russia Live Well" (Nekrasov).
They also notice fair fairs and fightsand argue that the man is compelled to drink: it helps to withstand hard work and eternal deprivation. An example of this is Yakim Naga, a peasant from the village of Bosovo. He works to death, "until he drinks to death". Yakim believes that if there was no drinking, there would be great sorrow.
Wanderers continue the way. In the work "To Whom in Russia to Live Well" Nekrasov tells that they want to find happy and cheerful people, they promise to give free drink to these lucky people. Therefore, a variety of people are trying to pass themselves off as such - paralyzed former yardy, long licked plates behind the master, exhausted workers, beggars. But travelers understand that these people can not be called happy.
The men once heard of a man named ErmilJirin. His story is further described by Nekrasov ("To Whom in Russia Live Well"). The summary, of course, does not convey all the details. Yermil Jirin is a burgomaster, whom very respected, a fair and honest man. He set out to redeem the mill one day. Without a receipt, they lent him the money of the peasants, he was so trusted with him. However, there was a peasant revolt. Now Ermil is in the prison.
The story of Obolt-Obolduyev
Gavrila Obult-Obolduyev, one of the landlords,told about the fate of the nobles after the abolition of serfdom. They used to belong to a lot: serfs, villages, forests. Nobles could invite to the house of serfs on holidays to pray. But after the peasant reform the master was not already a full-fledged owner of the peasants. Wanderers knew very well how difficult life was at the time of serfdom. But it is not difficult to understand them either, since the nobility became much more difficult after the abolition of serfdom. And it is no longer easier for the peasants. The wanderers understood that they would not be able to find a happy man among the men. So they decided to go to women.
Life of Matryona Korchagina
The peasants were told that in one village livesa peasant woman named Matryona Timofeevna Korchagina, whom everyone calls a lucky woman. They found her, and Matryona told the peasants about her life. This story continues Nekrasov "Who in Russia live well."
A brief summary of this woman's life storyfollowing. Her childhood was cloudless and happy. She had a hard-working family, non-drinking. Mother daughter cherished and cherished. When Matryona grew up, she became a beauty. A stove-maker from another village, Filipp Korchagin, once asked her to. Matryona told how he persuaded her to marry him. This was the only bright memory of this woman in her entire life, which was hopeless and dreary, although her husband treated her well by peasant standards: he almost did not beat. However, he went to the city to work. Matryona lived in the house of her father-in-law. Everything here was bad for her. The only one who was kind to the peasant woman was the very old grandfather Saveliy. He told her that for killing the manager came to penal servitude.
Soon Matryona gave birth to Demushka - a sweet andbeautiful child. She could not part with him for a minute. However, the woman had to work in the field, where she was not allowed by her mother-in-law to take the child. Grandfather Savely watched the baby. He once did not see after Demushka, and the child was eaten by pigs. We came to understand from the city, in front of the mother opened the baby. This was a hard blow for Matryona.
Then five children were born to her, all the boys. Matrena was a kind and caring mother. Once Fedot, one of the children, grazed the sheep. One of them was carried away by a wolf. This was the fault of the shepherd, who should be punished with whips. Then Matryona begged to be beaten up instead of her son.
She also said that her husband once wantedpick up the soldiers, although this was in violation of the law. Then Matryona went to the city, being pregnant. Here the woman met Elena Alexandrovna, the kind governor who helped her, and Matryona's husband was released.
A happy woman was considered Matryona peasants. However, after listening to her story, the peasants realized that she can not be called happy. Too much suffering and troubles were in her life. Matryona Timofeevna herself also says that a woman in Russia, especially a peasant woman, can not be happy. Her share is very difficult.
Survived from the mind of the landowner
The way to the Volga is kept by peasant muzhiks. Here there is mowing. Hard work is busy people. Suddenly an amazing scene: the skates are humiliated, they cater to the old master. It turned out that the landlord survived from his mind. He can not realize that serfdom has already been abolished. Therefore, his relatives persuaded the peasants to behave as if he were still acting. They were promised a meadow for this. The peasants agreed, but were deceived again. When the old master died, the heirs did not give them anything.
The story of Jacob
Repeatedly on the way, wanderers listen to folksongs - hungry, soldier and others, as well as different stories. They remember, for example, the story of Jacob, a true slave. He always tried to please and please the master, who humiliated and beat the serf. However, this led to the fact that Yakov loved him even more. The master in old age refused his legs. Jacob continued to take care of him as if he were his own child. But he did not get any thanks for it. Grisha, a young fellow, nephew of Yakov, wanted to marry a beautiful woman - a fortress girl. Out of jealousy, the old gentleman sent Grisha into recruits. Jacob got into drunkenness from this grief, but then returned to the master and avenged. He took him to the forest and hanged himself right before the master. Since that leg was paralyzed, he could not get away. Barin stayed all night under the corpse of Jacob.
Grigory Dobroskolonov - the national patron
This and other stories make you thinkMen that they will not be able to find happy ones. However, they learn about Grigory Dobrosklonov, a seminarian. This is the son of the sexton, who has seen from childhood the suffering and hopeless life of the people. He made a choice in his early youth, he decided that he would give his strength to fight for the happiness of his people. Gregory is educated and intelligent. He understands that Russia is strong and will cope with all the troubles. Gregory in the future will have a glorious path, a loud name for the people's defender, "consumption and Siberia."
The peasants are listening to this patron, but they have no understanding that such people can make others happy. This will not happen soon.
Heroes of the poem
Nekrasov portrayed various sections of the population. Simple peasants become the protagonists of the work. They were released by the reform of 1861. But their life after the abolition of serfdom changed slightly. The same hard work, hopeless life. After the reform, moreover, the peasants who owned their own land found themselves in an even more difficult situation.
Characteristics of the heroes of the work "To Whom in Russiato live well "can be supplemented by the fact that the author created amazingly authentic images of peasants.The characters are very accurate, although they are contradictory.Not only kindness, strength and integrity of character is in Russian people.They retained at the genetic level obsequiousness, servility, willingness to obey despot and tyrant.The coming of Grigory Dobrosklonov, the new man, is a symbol of the fact that honest, noble, intelligent people appear among the downtrodden peasantry, so that their fate will be unenviable and difficult. and people will finally be able to fight for happiness.This is what heroes and the author of the poem are dreaming about: NA Nekrasov (Who Lives Well in Russia, Russian Women, Frost, Red Nose and other works) a truly folk poet who was interested in the fate of the peasantry, his suffering, problems. "The work of NA Nekrasov" To Whom in Russia Live Well "was written with such sympathy for the people that makes him today feel empathy for him fate in that difficult time.