Who is a surgeon and what does he do?
Under the door of a surgeon in any polyclinicyou can often see a large queue. In this office, the reception is slow and thorough. Most often, patients get in the direction of other specialists, when it is impossible to eliminate the problem with conservative methods of treatment. So who is a surgeon? What can he do when other specialists are powerless?
What is surgery?
Surgery is a vast field of medicine thatstudies acute and chronic diseases, for the treatment of which operations are necessary. This method involves the incision or puncture of the skin and mucous membranes to obtain operational access, eliminate organ pathology (treatment), restore the integrity of the cut tissues. Each operation is a complicated and painstaking work. The surgeon must thoroughly know the features of the structure and functioning of the organ or system of organs, the treatment of which he is engaged in.
A bit of history
It's hard to say what prompted the first healertake hold of the knife. There was this simple curiosity or confidence in their knowledge. But the fact remains: attempts at surgical operations were recorded in ancient Greek treatises, in historical sources of China and Egypt, dating from about the 1st century BC. The works of Hippocrates and Avicenna on the methods of treating injuries and wounds have survived.
In the period from IX to XX century AD under the surgerya sound scientific basis was laid. Methods of antiseptic have been developed, anesthesia has appeared. Gradually, surgery became an integrated science, with certain methods and techniques of conducting operations.
The continuous development of the industry has led to the emergence ofcomplex precision equipment, which allows you to carry out operations with minimal consequences. Looking at laser scalpels and numerous computer monitors, some begin to doubt who is a surgeon today - a doctor or operator of medical equipment? Although there should be no doubt. Without deep and thorough medical knowledge, no technique will help a surgeon cure a patient.
The industry is constantly evolving. The surgeon receives basic knowledge, reading the works of Pare, Simpson, Roentgen and Pirogov, but he studies all his life to keep up with progress and save the lives of patients.
In fact, surgical interventions are conductedin all spheres of medicine. But, having received a basic education, a young doctor chooses a narrow area of surgery, in which he will specialize. Therefore, it is difficult to answer the question about who the surgeon is because of the specialization:
- The cardiosurgeon eliminates the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
- Thoracic - performs operations on the organs of the thorax.
- Angiosurgeon understands aneurysms and varicose veins.
- Neurosurgeon - specialist in operations on the brain and spine. It removes the tumor and eliminates the effects of injuries.
- A plastic surgeon can correct visible defects in the body or appearance, change the shape of the nose, increase the size of the breast, and so on.
- The surgeon-transplantologist replaces the unhealthy organ with a donor worker.
- The abdominal surgeon operates the organs of the abdominal and retroperitoneal cavity.
- A pediatric surgeon operates on trauma, organ pathology and hereditary diseases.
- The surgeon-ophthalmologist can notice a clouded lens, eliminate nearsightedness, or operate glaucoma.
In addition, there are specialists who perform operations on the maxillofacial device, and doctors who open abscesses or boils, that is, dealing with purulent surgery and so on.
Who gets to the surgeon?
After watching the series on medical topics, philistinesthey think that the surgeon is a magician. He daily solves puzzles and conducts complex unique operations. Of course, every surgical intervention is a certain risk. But many operations are carried out so often that they are brought to automaticity. For example, appendicitis and hernia. Quite often the surgeon comes with furunculosis, stomach ulcers, hemorrhoids, varicose veins and benign tumors. More complex cases are peritonitis and oncology. But in the practice of each surgeon there were operations "on the verge of a foul," when the life of the patient depended on the decision taken. Alas, not always these solutions are correct ...
Patients often try to get toadvertised "luminary" of surgery. But it is worth considering that reviews about surgeons can be both positive and negative, depending on how successful this or that operation was. The opinions of others, of course, do not interfere with the decision to turn to a particular doctor. Also worth paying attention to the experience of the specialist. The doctor should be able to listen to the patient, as well as make the right decision even in difficult situations, because this depends on the health and even the life of the patient.
When to register for an appointment?
Most often, an appointment with a surgeon comes withdirection from other professionals. But there are cases when it is necessary to go to the reception urgently, maybe not even at the polyclinic, but by ambulance, immediately to the hospital. To such cases, for example, there is a sharp onset of acute pain in the abdomen and increasing vomiting with blood. With such symptoms, you should not hesitate, because it can be appendicitis, pancreatitis or stomach ulcer. It is impossible to delay the reference to the surgeon at reception of traumas.
For a scheduled appointment it is worth to register, if on the bodythere were wounds that do not last more than 2 weeks. If palpation has been found to thicken in the mammary gland (even if it does not give painful sensations). To go to reception to the surgeon it is necessary at appreciable consolidation of lymphonoduses, especially if at a palpation the pain is felt.
To the surgeon come with abscesses on the skin, ingrownnails, swollen joints, coarsened calluses. Patients who do not understand who such a surgeon and what he does, often themselves are surprised, having received in the registry a coupon to this specialist.
How is the primary reception?
In any, even the smallest provincialclinic the surgeon conducts the primary reception according to one scenario. First of all, he interrogates the patient and listens to his complaints. Then conducts an examination and appoints the necessary examinations (tests, X-rays, ultrasound and others). This makes it possible to decide on the expediency of surgical intervention.
When handling injuries - conducts processing, imposes seams, gauze or plaster bandages.
Where do surgeons learn?
Many students of medical schools want to besurgeons, but not all reach their goal. For six years the student "gnaws granite" in a medical college, but having received a doctor's diploma, he will be able to practice in the polyclinic or district hospital. To be admitted to the operating table, a young specialist undergoes a two-year residency and receives a confirmatory certificate. Then follows the postgraduate course, which lasts 3 years. But even after that the young doctor works under the supervision of a more experienced specialist. To become an independent practicing surgeon, a young specialist is trained for another 5-10 years.
A world-class surgeon must ownforeign languages (at least English), attend conferences of different levels, and even better speak on them with reports. And to study the surgeon is necessary throughout all professional work, differently he hopelessly lags behind medical progress.