Where do polar bears and penguins live?
According to popular belief, polar bears and penguins live where there is a lot of snow and ice. This is true, but, although these species prefer extreme conditions, they do not live in the natural environment in one territory. Polar bears like the Arctic, and penguins like Antarctica. Let's take a closer look at where polar bears and penguins live.
Polar bears - habitat and habits
In their natural habitat, polar bears live in the circumpolar regions of the north pole. These animals are well adapted to life in conditions of tough north with extremely low temperatures. Due to the impressive reserves of subcutaneous fat and thick fur, polar bears feel comfortable both on land and in icy water. Such a habitat does not prevent large predators from leading a full-fledged lifestyle.
Polar bears in nature live in several countries, including Russia, Greenland, Canada, Alaska and Norway. Large predators do not have a tendency to migrate; they live in a specific area, preferring areas with open water, since fish is the favorite food of a polar bear.
In the summer, due to rising temperatures, polar bears disperse. Some animals are even found at the north pole. Compared to previous years, the number of these animals is small, but not critical, so it’s too early to talk about the disappearance of the view from the face of the planet.
The polar bear is a large land predator. In nature, males weighing up to 800 kg are often found. The average weight of a male individual is 450 kg. Females weigh half as much, but before wintering or during pregnancy significantly increase body weight. The brown bear is considered to be the closest relative of the white, so the crossing of these species usually ends in success.
Features of seasonal behavior of polar bears
It is striking that polar bears have no hibernation period. They remain active throughout the year. With the approach of cold weather, animals are actively gaining subcutaneous fat.
Polar bears owe their name to a shade of fur. In winter, animals use fur for camouflage. The intelligence of the polar bears deserves special attention. While waiting for prey, these massive predators close their nose with their paw, which is the only dark spot. In summer, the polar bear's fur acquires a straw hue. This is due to ultraviolet rays.
I note that the polar bear has a multi-level “robe”. Black skin, perfectly absorbing the sun's heat, covers the fluffy undercoat. The animal also has long protective hairs. They are transparent and characterized by excellent thermal conductivity.
Polar bears are extraordinary hardy. Contrary to a decent body weight, animals move quickly, taking advantage of jumps. Often in pursuit of prey predator overcomes up to 500 meters.
The polar bear also feels great in the water. Without a breather, he swims up to 1 km. This animal is also excellent diving. Within five minutes, he calmly engaged in underwater hunting.
The diet of a polar bear includes fish, sea and land animals. Sometimes seals also fall on the predator's table. Thanks to a decent supply of fat, he goes without food for a long time, but if luck has smiled, he eats up to 20 kg of meat at once.
Polar bears do not drink. They obtain the liquid necessary for the full existence from food of animal origin. I note that due to the cold climate they do not have abundant sweating. So they practically do not lose moisture.
Penguins - habitat and habits
Penguins are funny birds. They have wings, but they do not fly. On land, clumsy, but in the water extremely graceful. Many people are of the opinion that they live only on the territory of Antarctica. This is not true. This part of the planet is inhabited only by 3 species, the rest of the species like warmer lands.
With the exception of the breeding and feeding periods of offspring, penguins stay in the open sea of the Southern Hemisphere. The bulk of the birds is concentrated in Antarctica and on the territory of the nearby islands. In tropical latitudes, they appear in cold-flowing places. The Galapagos Islands, which are located near the equator, are considered the northernmost habitat of penguins.
Where do penguins meet?
- Antarctica. A continent with a harsh climate, eternal ice and extremely low temperature has become an ideal place for the life of the Antarctic and Emperor penguins, as well as the type of Adele. From the beginning of spring to mid-autumn, they live in the ocean, after which they return to land, unite in colonies, build nests, multiply and feed offspring.
- Africa. Hot African coast, washed by the cold Benguela current, was chosen by spectacled penguins. This species is incredibly sociable.It is not surprising that many tourists annually come to the Cape of Good Hope for the sake of unforgettable communication with birds.
- Australia. Australian or blue penguin lives here. It differs from other species in its modest mass and small growth - 1 kg and 35 cm, respectively. The largest number of representatives of the smallest species is concentrated on Phillip Island. Travelers visit this place to admire the Penguin Parade. Small birds gather at the water's edge in small groups, after which the paces are marched to the burrows in the sandy hills.
- Argentina. The Orkney and Shetland Islands are inhabited by King Penguins, which grow to a meter height. The authorities of Latin America in every way protect these birds, which contributes to an increase in population.
- New Zealand. The magnificent penguins are the rarest species on the islands here. Their distinguishing feature is living in pairs. They are not going to the colony. Due to the small number of individuals, the species is protected.
- South Atlantic. Golden-haired penguins are found on the coast of Chile, on the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego.Their huge colonies attract tourists with amazing singing males, which so attract females.
- . The Peruvian coast, along which passes the cold current - the abode of Humboldt penguins. For various reasons, their number decreases annually, for a total of 12 thousand pairs.
As you can see, there are a considerable number of penguin species, each of which lives in its own amazing corner. These birds are unique, and humanity is simply obliged to ensure that they continue to delight us with a unique view and other individual characteristics.
Features of seasonal behavior of penguins
Penguin lifestyle is extremely unusual. It is not surprising, because these flightless birds use their wings as fins, and all parents take part in raising and feeding offspring.
In penguins, the courtship period ends with the establishment of offspring. The result of the joint efforts of the couple is the egg. It needs to be protected from snow, otherwise, under the influence of low temperature, the offspring will die at the initial stage.
The female gently lays the egg on the paw of the male and goes in search of food.After receiving the egg, the male envelops the future baby with an abdominal fold. He will have to warm the egg for 2 months. Often, for the sake of offspring, the male resorts to the help of other members of the fraternity.
After the appearance of the baby, the male feeds him with milk, for the production of which the stomach and esophagus of the bird is responsible. Penguin milk is an incredibly nourishing fluid that contains 10 times more fat and protein than cow's milk.
While the father takes care of the child, the female catches squid and fish. The tongue of the penguin is covered with "needles", turned in the direction of the pharynx. If the prey landed in the beak, escape will not work.
Penguins hunt in packs. Gathered in a large company of females dive into the water and, opening his mouth wide, at a speed fly into the shoal of fish. After such a maneuver in the mouth is sure to be a tasty morsel.
Upon return, the female gaining weight feeds the starving family members. In her stomach, caring mother brings up to 4 kg of half-digested food. The little penguin is transplanted on the mother's paws and eats brought delicacies for several weeks.
Further, the role of the breadwinner falls on the shoulders of the male. Penguins feed babies once an hour, which contributes to the rapid depletion of stocks. Before the return of the male, the little penguin weighs several kilograms.
Where do polar bears and penguins live in captivity
Every person who visited the zoo must have seen a polar bear. For these animals are equipped with spacious pens, where conditions are created that most closely correspond to the natural environment. It is about imitation of a cold climate, the creation of ponds with ice water and snow shelters.
In animals living in captivity, fur sometimes acquires a green tint. This is because under the influence of high temperature, the fur becomes an ideal breeding ground for algae.
In Central Europe, penguins are found exclusively in zoos. Administrators of some institutions organize penguin marches for visitors. Under the supervision of zoo workers, birds leave the enclosure for a walk. Such events are organized by zoos of Edinburgh, Munich and other major European cities.
Penguins living in captivity often encounter a fungal infection affecting the airways. Therefore, as a preventive measure in the summer, the birds are kept behind glass partitions.
Summarize. During today's investigation, we found that polar bears and penguins, contrary to general opinion, do not occur in the same territory. At the whim of nature, they were scattered in different ends of the planet. I think this is for the better, because white bears, because of their hunting character, would not allow penguins to exist peacefully. These birds and no bears enough life problems and enemies.