What is the reserve and national parks? General characteristics and distinctive features
What is the reserve and national parks, everyone knows. Perhaps, only not absolutely precisely understand difference of one concept from another. Let's try to figure this out.
What are national parks?
To understand what a nature reserve is andNational parks, it is necessary to know the exact definition of these concepts. So, national parks are special natural territories on land or water, where human activity is completely or partially prohibited. The main goal is the protection of the environment, i.e., preservation of valuable natural complexes, flora and fauna. These places are open to free visits by nature lovers and tourists.
In addition to environmental protection, nationalParks are research institutions, and also perform an ecological and educational role. It is important to understand that the territories and individual real estate objects that belong to these natural complexes represent a special ecological, aesthetic and historical value for the state. In addition, these are excellent places for organizing international regulated tourism.
All national parks of our country areobjects of property of the Russian Federation. Historical and cultural real estate objects are assigned to them on the basis of operational management. The territory of national parks is limited to a protected area with an orderly regime of nature use and visiting.
What are reserves?
Reserves are different in that in their territoriescategorically forbidden not only any kind of economic activity, but also finding people there. According to the law of the Russian Federation, these territories are transferred to reserves for perpetual use. It is our country that is famous for a large number of state protected areas, while in the world there are only one.
Reserves and national parks of Russia are availablepractically in all regions, therefore they are distinguished by a specific landscape, unique representatives of flora and fauna, most of which are listed in the Red Book and carefully guarded by the state.
Tasks of the reserve
Reserves are objects of federalvalues, therefore every year from the country's budget allocated funds for their maintenance. What is a reserve and national parks can be understood on the basis of the main tasks that they perform. So, the objectives of the reserve are:
- taking all the necessary measures to preserve and enhance the biological diversity of protected natural complexes, keeping them in a natural state in protected areas;
- carrying out research work;
- carrying out of ecological monitoring, and also realization of ecological education of the population;
- assistance in the training of specialists in the field of environmental protection;
- Participation in environmental state expertise in the design of the location of economic and other activities.
Territories of Russian nature reservesexclude the use of mineral resources, water, plants and animal hunting, as they have particular value for world science. They are examples of wildlife typical of a particular region, and contribute to the conservation of the genetic stock of rare representatives of flora and fauna.
The main tasks of national parks
The main tasks of national parks are:
- preservation of the integrity and uniqueness of natural sites and historical and cultural sites located within their borders;
- restoration of disturbed historical, cultural and natural objects;
- creation of optimal conditions for regulated tourism and cultural recreation for citizens;
- practical use of new scientific methods in the field of nature protection;
- ecological education.
Reserves and national parks are objects of federal significance financed from funds allocated from the federal budget.
What is the nature reserve and national parks -understandably. And how do the so-called natural parks differ from them? The fact is that they are similar in their status and tasks to national ones. The main difference is that they do not have the status of federal significance and are under the jurisdiction of the republic, the province or the region in which they are located. Accordingly, funding is provided from the local budget. For example, in the Urals "Taganay" is a national park, and "Chusovaya River" and "Oleny Ruchi" are already unique nature parks.
National parks of Russia
Currently in Russia there are more than 40national parks, each of which is distinguished by special natural attractions, be it animals, birds, unique plants or historical real estate.
The number of national parksright belongs to the North-West Federal District of Russia, in particular, Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region. There are unique parks here: Vodlozersky, Kenozersky, Kalevala, "Russian Arctic", "Curonian Spit", Valdai and many others.
Reserves and national parks of the world
More than 38 reserves occupy extensive,many kilometers of Russia. These include: Altai, Baikal, Bashkir, Barguzin, Darwin, Zavidovsky, Kandalaksha, Ilmen, Komsomol, Kedrovaya Pad, Kronotsky, Pechoro-Ilych, Sayano-Shushensky, Caucasian and many others.
Among them there are nature reserves and national parks of the tundra: Kandalaksha, Pechoro-Ilych, Taimyr, Great Arctic, "Yugyd Va", Lapland, Wrangel Island. Scientists are studying the typical tundra ecological systems, as well as observation of rare birds (polar owl, white partridge, peregrine falcon), a unique population of wild reindeer, Arctic fox and representatives of aquatic fauna (whitefish, salmon, etc.).
In Siberia, the tundra stretched along a narrowcoastal zone and reaches a maximum width of 500 km (from the northeast of Russia to the south, to the northern part of Kamchatka). The greater northern part of Sweden is also occupied by the tundra belt of Swedish Lapland. Small areas of the tundra are found in the territories of Finland, Norway, Iceland. Therefore, controlled environmental objects have also been created here.
Known nature reserves and national parks of the world,Protecting the flora and fauna of tundra ecosystems: "Urho-Kekkonen" and "Lemmenjoki", owned by Finland; "Abisku", referring to Sweden; the Norwegian Hardangervidda.