What is the government? Its types and functions
We hear the word many times during the day"government", but never think about its meaning. In the view of the average man in the street, the country's leadership consists of people who decide something for everyone. The majority of the population can not even name more than 2-3 ministries, and the minister's last name is knowledge on the brink of fantasy. Let's try to understand what the government is, when it appeared, why it is necessary and what is this government in our country.
Definition of government
The state must have a number of necessarysigns, without which it can not be considered as such. One of them is the presence in the country of a centralized management body. Governments in one form or another appeared before our era, and some of the first arguments about what the government and the state structure, belong to the ancient philosophers.
If we take into account the definition of the conceptgovernment all its kinds, then we can come to the following statement. The government is one of the main government bodies that regulates the work of all public institutions, is responsible for observing the lawful order within the country, the welfare of citizens and protection from external threats, while using all available financial, administrative and military resources of society. In fact, the state government is nothing more than an executive power.
What are the governments
In different states the executive power is formed in different ways:
By party sign.If there is a party system in the country andone of the parties dominates, then the government there will be one-party. If several party organizations are in power, then such a government is multi-party.
Non-partisan governments.There are countries with no partysystem in general. These can be absolute monarchies and dictatorial regimes (for example, fascist). Under the dictatorship, the party system can formally exist, but it is nothing more than a sign that does not solve anything. All the fullness of power is concentrated in the hands of one person and a very close group of individuals.
The majority and minority governments.Operate in countries where their members are appointed orare elected. If the prime minister and cabinet members support a larger number of parties in parliament, then this is the majority government, if fewer parties are minorities.
Transitional governments.Most often appointed in crisis situations and can be formed according to a variety of principles.
Ways of Government Formation
There are two main ways of forming the Cabinet:
Parliamentary.With this method, the Prime Minister is electedparliament. Often, it should be approved by parliamentarians and the composition of the future cabinet. Parliament can pass a vote of no confidence in the government, after which the question arises of the resignation of the Cabinet.
Non-parliamentary.Most often with this method of forming a solutionthe composition of the cabinet is made by the president. The head of state also nominates the prime minister. At the same time, the president can make changes to the government independently, without the approval of the prime minister. But to appoint the prime minister himself, the leader of the country often has to enlist the support of members of parliament.
Parliamentary formation is typical forparliamentary republics and monarchies, where the main person in the state is the Prime Minister. The presidential republics (Russian Federation) prefer an unparliamentary way of appointing the Cabinet.
Who is the government composed of?
Under any form of government there is an officeministers. No monarch in the past could rule completely alone. In fact, the so-called circle of approximations has changed over time into ministries. The government as such is a purely executive body. The president (under the presidential form of government) or (in some cases) the dictator is also part of the government of the country. But they work more like idea generators and higher authority. For the observance of orders and the maintenance of order in the country, the Cabinet of Ministers is nevertheless in charge, therefore, when answering the question what is the government, we will bear in mind precisely it.
At the head of the cabinet is usually the Prime Ministeror the Chancellor, under him are the ministers directly responsible for their areas of work. Ministers may have deputies, and the deputy prime minister usually has a chairman of the government (prime minister). Often under the government or the president there is a narrow circle of the first persons of the state who make fundamental decisions. Virtually any person can become a minister. Sometimes for this you need high professionalism in your industry, sometimes some connections, and often both.
What is the government of the Russian Federation
The government in Russia is legallyfull executive power, together with the president and the Federation Council. However, the government itself is appointed by the head of state, he can dissolve the cabinet of ministers. When carrying out its activities, the leadership of the Russian Federation must strictly adhere to the Constitution. In other respects, the Cabinet of Ministers has all the executive power in the country and every government order must be strictly observed.
The Government of the Russian Federation includes: 20 ministries headed by federal ministers; 20 different federal services; 39 services, which are units of federal ministries. The President can create services or departments by his decrees or abolish them. The main figure is the chairman of the government. He can replace the president as necessary. The prime minister has deputies, they are appointed by the head of state (now there are 7 of them), and they are responsible for the key directions of the country's development. Next are the ministers and their deputies.
At the government there is a Presidiumgovernment of the Russian Federation. It includes key figures, including the premier, deputies, the chairman of the Central Bank, the Minister of Defense, etc. Under the ministries, colleges have been formed to deal with various issues. It is also possible for the Commission for Operational Questions to make decisions that are binding on federal authorities.
As can be seen, the structure of the executive branchRF is quite complicated. At the same time, a huge auxiliary apparatus is not directly included in the government. In addition, we must not forget about regional governments, each of which has its own ministries.