What is a feudal lord? Medieval feudal lord
One who studies the history of the Middle Ages may be asked what a feudal lord is. This is a man who owns the land, but does not cultivate it himself, but exploits for this the peasants living in the territory of his possession. For them, he is a gentleman.
In order to understand what feudal is, one should consider a hierarchy of representatives of this concept.
Medieval feudal ladder:
- Princes (kings). They occupy the highest level in the hierarchy, own entire provinces, hundreds of villages, and can afford to bring thousands of soldiers to battle.
- Barons. Owning several villages, they can lead a detachment of soldiers to war. In different countries they are called differently. For example, in England - the lord, in Germany add before the name "ger."
- Knights Own one estate, which may include the whole settlement or part of it. As a rule, the knight serves as a seigneur standing above him in the feudal ladder.It is from a large landowner that a knight receives an estate. It is his responsibility to accompany the nobleman in the campaigns, although he has the right to fight on his own.
- Squires. Stand on the lowest rung of the feudal ladder. Initially they were military servants of the knights. For the service they received land and began to live as masters among the peasants. In England they are called squires.
When it became clear that such a feudal lord, you can consider the life of the ruling class during the Middle Ages in more detail.
How the feudal lords lived
The life of feudal lords and peasants in the Middle Ages was significantly different. Landowners spent it in battles, feasts, entertainment. The festivities were also associated with military craft, such as tournaments.
They gathered a lot of spectators and represented a military competition in which the knights showed their strength and agility. The rich feudal lords were located in the stands, and the people stood at the arena.
Two knights, dressed in armor, mounted their horses and rode in the opposite direction. At a signal, they rushed towards each other. Their task was to knock an opponent out of the saddle with a blunt tournament spear.Participants often received serious injuries. Often it all ended with the death of a knight. The winner received a horse and enemy armor.
Knights of the Middle Ages did not differ education. They were more interested in military affairs and antiquity of their own kind. It was this that was held in high esteem and placed the feudal lords above the peasants.
Understand what a feudal lord, will allow the study of his home. Landowners lived in an era of constant wars, uprisings and looting. Therefore, the house was not just a place to sleep and rest - it was a fortress.
The castle was built, as a rule, on a hill. This made it possible to see the enemy approaching and react in a timely manner. The first castles were built of wood, later - of stone. The walls were built so that warriors could stand on them. A moat was built around the castle.
The enemy had to first fall asleep ditch, climb the walls, demolish the gate. All this time stones were falling on the enemy, arrows were flying, boiling water and burning tar poured. Even entering the castle, the enemy could be left with nothing. The feudal lord with his family hid in the main tower. She was provided with a well, food supplies.The tower was built so that it was necessary to capture each floor. This could take a lot of time.
In addition to the castle and land holdings, the feudal lord had to have special weapons, which cost a fortune.
The armament of the medieval feudal lord
Weighing knightly weapons about fifty pounds. Knights have been trained since childhood. It was important to be able to sit on a horse and control a weapon - a heavy sword, a long spear. A large shield served as a defense. The armor was made of high quality metal. Their cost depended on its thickness.
The horse was supposed to be strong and resilient. Over time, the armor improved. But even with the best weapons, the knight had one weakness. If he fell off his horse during a battle, it was difficult for him to get up on his own due to the weight of his weaponry.
In the Middle Ages, the feudal lord had to give forty-five cows for a war horse and full armament. Only a wealthy landowner could have a large flock.
The age of the feudal lords lasted quite long. The first landowners appeared in the fifth century, but they began to dominate in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. The feudal order ended with the advent of capitalism in the nineteenth century.