What is sodium hydrogen sulphate?
Sodium hydrogen sulphate is an acid salt of sodium andsulfuric acid. This substance is designated by the formula NaHSO4. Sodium hydrosulfate is a transparent crystal that does not have a specific odor. The molar mass of this substance is 120.06 grams per mole, and its density is 2.472 grams per centimeter cubic. It melts at a temperature of +186 ° C. When the substance is heated, two polymorphic transitions can be observed-at a temperature of +140 ° C and +170 ° C.
Sodium hydrogen sulphate can interact withalkali, passing to the reaction in the sulfate. Thus, when it interacts with sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate and water are formed. With a strong heating of this substance (up to +250 ° C or more), it splits into sodium pyrosulfate and water.
In ordinary state, sodium hydrogen sulfate does not react with other substances, however, when sintered at a temperature of more than +450 ° C, it is able to react with salts and oxides.
The practical significance of this substance is great:it is used in non-ferrous metallurgy (as flux), it also acts as a reagent when transferring oxides to sulfates. It is a strong denaturing agent. It is widely used in cooking (it is officially registered as a food additive E514).
However, despite all the importance in lifeman, sodium hydrogen sulfate can be dangerous: being a strong alkali, this substance is very corrosive, it can leave severe burns, it causes considerable harm and eye mucosa. The greatest danger is its entry into the gastrointestinal tract. Also, inhalation of the vapors of the substance is extremely harmful.
Due to the negative impact of hydrogen sulfatesodium on the human body, this substance is marked with the international symbol "Dangerous", which is a square of orange color, cut by two diagonal black bands. This sign speaks of the danger of the substance not only for man, but also for the environment, and also about the limitations imposed on its production.
For the production of sodium hydrogen sulphate,conduct a reaction between concentrated sulfuric acid and caustic soda, with sulfuric acid should be in excess. As a result of this reaction, sodium hydrogen sulphate and water are formed.
However, before taking on the preparation of this substance, you need to get the sodium itself. Obtaining sodium is not too complicated procedure, and some of the methods are possible even at home.
One of the very first ways to produce sodiumis the reaction of reduction of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with coal at high temperature (about +1000 ° C). Its result was the production of pure sodium and the evolution of carbon monoxide. Carrying out this reaction was not too laborious, but because of the separation of carbon monoxide it became very dangerous.
Therefore, another method was inventedproduction - electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. The advantage of this method is not only its relative safety, but also a lower heating temperature of the substance than at the reduction: +600 ° C instead of +1000 ° C. This method can be used at home - if, of course, there is the possibility of heating sodium chloride (common table salt) to the specified temperature.
Based on sodium - the most chemically activeelement of the periodic table - get a substance related to sodium hydrogen sulfate and no less important for humanity. This substance is sodium hydrosulfide, the acid salt of hydrogen sulfide and sodium. It is a white crystal, designated by the formula NaHS. It is obtained by passing hydrogen sulphide through a solution of sodium sulfide, and also by passing hydrogen sulfide through a solution of sodium hydroxide.
Sodium hydrosulfide reacts with alkalisand acids, it is easily oxidized by oxygen. It becomes black when melted. It is used widely enough: it is part of the means used to remove excess layers of skins, is common in the textile industry, is used as raw material for the production of many dyes, butiphos.