What is scientific knowledge?
Cognition is a specific genushuman activity. It is aimed at comprehending the person himself and the world around him. Acquisition of knowledge is carried out by people with two basic means. The first is work. Thus, one gets practical knowledge. The second is the spiritual method. Within its framework, the cognitive process and the knowledge gained during the historical development of self-knowledge and practice are embodied in various forms.
For every form of social consciousness(philosophy, science, politics, mythology, religion, etc.) correspond to special types of knowledge. Among them it is necessary to distinguish mythological, playful, everyday, philosophical. There is also artistic-figurative, personal, scientific knowledge.
Each species has its own characteristics. However, in the conditions of the modern world, the question of what is scientific knowledge is of interest to researchers more than other questions.
The essence of this type of perception of information consists ofin a reliable generalization of the available facts. Scientific knowledge for the casual sees the natural and necessary, and in the individual reveals the general. Its task is to discover the objective laws of the real world: social, natural, laws of thought and self-knowledge. In this regard, scientific knowledge is oriented primarily to the essential characteristics of the object, the general properties and expression of them in an abstract system. It seeks to uncover objective, necessary links, fixed in the form of laws. If this is not, then there is no science itself. Specificity of scientific knowledge provides for the discovery of laws and in-depth study of phenomena.
The highest value and immediate goalis an objective truth. It is comprehended mainly by rational methods and means, not without the participation, of course, of natural observation. Scientific knowledge presupposes the elimination of subjective moments (if possible), which ensures the "purity" of the examination of the subject. Thus, science gives a true reflection of phenomena, forms an objective picture of what is happening. At the same time, the activity of the subject, which is a prerequisite and a condition for understanding the truth, is of no small importance.
More than other forms of knowledge science focuses onpractical embodiment. Thus, it becomes in some way a "guide to action" on the transformations in the surrounding reality and the regulation of real processes. With the help of scientific knowledge, the possibilities not only of foresight, but also the conscious formation of the future are opened.
Modern science has a significantfeature. This feature manifests itself in the ability to predetermine practice. Many modern production processes originated in laboratories. Thus, today science is able not only to meet the needs of production, but is often a prerequisite for technological progress.
In the epistemological sense, scientific knowledgeis a contradictory and complex process. In the course of this process, not only reproduction, fixation of information occurs, but also the formation of information element systems in accordance with certain principles, norms, rules.
Acquisition of scientific knowledge is not withoutuse of specific material means (tools, instruments, other equipment). Along with this, different methods and means are used for studying, such as mathematics, modern logic, dialectics, and others.
Scientific knowledge does not exist withoutevidence, validity, reliability of the findings and the results obtained. However, at the same time, the study involves the construction of conjectures, assumptions, hypotheses.
Modern methodology distinguishes variouscriteria of scientific knowledge. In addition to those mentioned above, they should also include internal systemic nature, formal consistency, reproducibility, freedom from bias, openness to criticism, rigor.