What is hyperemia? Types, signs and treatment
Quite often in modern medical practice is recorded such a violation as hyperemia. What is hyperemia? Why does pathology develop? What symptoms should I pay attention to? Are there any effective therapies? Is such a violation dangerous? Answers to these questions are sought by many patients.
Hyperemia: what is it?
To get started is to deal with basic information about this violation. What is hyperemia? Why does this pathology arise?
This is a condition that is accompanied by excessive filling of the blood vessels of a specific part of the body or organ. Such a phenomenon can be considered quite common. For example, many people know what face flushing looks like. Small vessels of the skin overflow with blood, with the result that the tissues become red (sometimes the condition is accompanied by edema).
If we talk about the causes, the excessive filling of blood vessels can be caused either by an increase in arterial inflow, or by a violation of venous outflow of blood.It should immediately be said that edema, hyperemia, impaired blood flow is not an independent pathology. This condition is rather a symptom of various diseases.
Hyperemia: causes of increased arterial blood flow
The increased flow of arterial blood is observed in different situations. The list of risk factors is quite impressive.
- Often there is a hyperemia after severe friction of the skin with a different surface. The cause of reddening of skin tissues may be, for example, wearing tight clothes or clothes made of hard materials.
- The reasons include the negative impact of the external environment, such as too low or high temperatures, low atmospheric pressure.
- Redness of the skin can be caused by fever or, conversely, a sharp decrease in body temperature.
- The list of reasons can be attributed to the effect on the skin or internal organs of chemically aggressive substances, in particular alkalis or acids.
- Blood flow occurs when foreign proteins, toxins enter the body. Activation of pathogenic microorganisms can also lead to hyperemia, because in the process of vital activity of bacteria, fungi secrete potentially dangerous substances into the blood.
- Redness of the skin can be associated with increased heartbeat, as well as emotional experiences, such as severe stress, anger or shame.
- Risk factors include animal and insect bites (such as wasps, mosquitoes, snakes).
- The influx of arterial blood is also observed with the use of certain substances, in particular caffeine, alcohol, certain drugs, narcotic drugs.
- Amplification of the lymph flow leads to the same result.
- Risk factors include various allergic reactions.
Causes of blood outflow difficulties
Venous hyperemia also develops under the influence of certain factors. With their list you should definitely read.
- The first thing to mention is the contraction or compression of large venous trunks. Violation of venous outflow may be associated with scarring, tumor growth, the presence of hernias. Pregnant women often face the same problem, as a growing fetus can squeeze blood vessels. Risk factors include the habit of some women to wear too tight jewelery or wristwatches with a tight strap.
- Hyperemia can be the result of irregularities in the heart (if the pressure activity of the myocardium is weakened).
- Risk factors include a long stay in an uncomfortable position. Hyperemia is often faced by people who are forced to maintain bed rest for a long time, as well as patients with disabilities.
- The constant wearing of uncomfortable high-heeled shoes also has a negative effect on the state of the venous blood flow.
Symptoms of arterial hyperemia
Hyperemia (pictured in the article) is accompanied by very characteristic symptoms, especially when it comes to circulatory disorders in the skin tissues.
At the site of a rush of blood, the skin turns red. Often the affected area increases and seems to rise above the surface of other tissues — this is due to swelling of the soft tissues. Arterial vessels dilate, and blood flow in them is accelerated.
Patients note that they feel a pulsation in small subcutaneous vessels, this feeling is absent in the normal state. The temperature of the affected skin area rises, it can be felt even by touch.
Signs of impaired venous blood flow
The clinical picture with venous hyperemia looks different. Soft tissues swell, increase in size, and palpation of this area is accompanied by discomfort, sometimes even soreness.
Nevertheless, the hyperemic skin acquires not red, but burgundy or bluish tint (sometimes dark blue spots appear on the tissues). The temperature of the tissues in this place decreases, the skin becomes cooler to the touch. Some patients complain of numbness of the affected skin area.
In modern medicine there are many schemes created for the classification of this state. According to the mechanism of development, there are:
- active hyperemia (arterial), which is associated with an increase in blood flow; it can be both neurotonic (associated with the stimulation of the nerves that are responsible for the expansion of blood vessels), and neuroparalytic (paralysis of the nerves, which provide vasoconstriction);
- passive, which is caused by a violation of the outflow of venous blood;
- mixed, which combines both of the above forms.
Pathology is also divided depending on its location.For example, a patient may develop hyperemia of the mucous membrane, lungs, skin, brain, eyes. There is also the so-called collateral form of the violation, which is associated with the blockade of the main artery.
Depending on the etiology, physical, chemical, mechanical, emotional and biological forms of hyperemia are distinguished. Depending on the course, the pathology may be acute or chronic.
Other features of the clinical picture
There are some other signs, the appearance of which sometimes leads to hyperemia. What are these symptoms?
Some patients have an increased heart rate. Often the patient's breathing quickens for no apparent reason, and the mucous membranes turn red, which is associated with an increase in the volume of small vessels (a vivid example in this case is the hyperemia of the eyes, which is accompanied by their redness).
Other symptoms include bleeding, which, again, is associated with a change, or rather damage to the vascular wall. Hyperemia is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of pronounced edema. In the most severe cases, the oppression of the work of various organs and even entire systems is observed.
Brain hyperemia: clinical features
This form of hyperemia is rarely registered and may be associated with both the influx of arterial and venous blood stasis.
Violation of cerebral circulation is accompanied by weakness and frequent dizziness. Patients note a feeling of pressure in the head. Observed visual and hearing impairment. Symptoms include dullness of consciousness, a feeling of stunning. In more severe cases, patients faint. These violations can not be ignored, as the hyperemia in this case may result in swelling of the brain.
As already mentioned, hyperemia is not an independent disease, but only a symptom. That is why in the process of diagnosis it is important to identify and eliminate the root cause. Depending on the appearance of certain signs, it is recommended that the patient be examined by a general practitioner, dermatologist, cardiologist, and ophthalmologist.
A blood test that helps detect the presence of an infection and an inflammatory process is mandatory. If there is a suspicion of disruption of the work of those or other internal organs, the patient is prescribed electrocardiography, computed tomography, ultrasound.If there is reason to believe that hyperemia is the result of an allergic reaction, then an allergy test is recommended.
What is dangerous pathology?
It is worth noting immediately that hyperemia can sometimes be helpful. For example, an additional influx of arterial blood is created artificially during certain therapeutic procedures.
In most cases, this condition is not dangerous and goes away by itself. Nevertheless, there are a number of complications, the development of which can lead to hyperemia. What can cause such a phenomenon? For example, in rare cases, when the head is overheated, there is a strong compression of the vascular walls, which sometimes ends with swelling of the brain.
Brain hyperemia in the most severe cases can result in death. Chronic circulatory disorders in the brain sometimes lead to hydrocephalus.
Basic principles of therapy
The treatment in this case, of course, depends on the cause of the pathology. In most cases, the blood flow to the tissues is not something dangerous. But sometimes it still requires special care and appropriate therapy.
- Naturally, the first step is to eliminate the causes of circulatory disorders.
- The most frequently recorded hyperemia of the face and skin. In this case, it is important to carefully care for the affected areas. It is better to take only a warm shower, temporarily abandoning soaps, gels and other cosmetics.
- Often, doctors prescribe such drugs to patients as Persantin, Vazaprostan, Curantil, Kordafen. These drugs help to normalize blood circulation and improve the condition of the blood vessels.
- If stress is the cause of hyperemia, then a specialist may recommend taking mild sedatives, such as Tenoten or valerian root tinctures.
- Hyperemia in children (as well as adults) is most often associated with certain infectious diseases. In such cases, it is necessary to undergo appropriate antibacterial, antiviral or antifungal therapy.
- With bacterial diseases and intoxication, detoxification therapy is sometimes required, which includes taking Atoxil, Enterosgel and some other sorbents.
- Hyperemia can be associated with severe itching and allergic reactions.In such cases, it is advisable to take antihistamine drugs, including Claritin and Suprastin.
- Sometimes doctors recommend some wellness treatments, including massages, steam baths, douches, and cosmetic wraps.
What can not be done? Preventive actions
Immediately it should be noted that the hyperemic area of the skin requires special care. It should not be treated with products that dry the skin, for example with soap or lotions containing alcohol. Also, do not lubricate the affected tissue with protective creams (without the recommendation of a doctor).
With regard to prevention, it is only necessary to avoid exposure to risk factors. For example, in winter, it is important to dress according to the weather - this will prevent hypothermia and frostbite of tissues. It is necessary to avoid severe overheating of the body.
Try to use high-quality cosmetics, wear clothes made from natural fabrics. If you have to work with chemically aggressive substances (including household chemicals), then you should not forget about protective gloves. Experts recommend to follow the diet, include in the diet foods rich in minerals and vitamins.Of course, it is necessary to observe the correct mode of sleep and rest. If you experience any deterioration of well-being, it is worth contacting a specialist.