What is cytology?
In medical science, cytological research (another name analysis of cytology, cytopathology) includes studies that can help to identify the pathological course of the disease, based on the structure of the organ cell. Any such cell taken for research is examined under a microscope, after which a cytological conclusion is written by the laboratory assistant who made the study.
What is cytology? This is the science of the cell, its structure, changes and those pathological processes within it that may indicate the development of diseases in the human body.
Cytological studies: the goal
The main purpose of such studies, and in particular such ones as cervical cytology, is to identify cancer, viral and bacterial processes, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory processes in organs and systems of the human body.
Cytology of the cervix and cervical canal are the most common types of cytological examination.
The peculiarity of the cancer of this section of the female body is that it is preceded by precancerous processes.Their detection in the early stages helps prevent the oncological course of the processes and significantly alleviate the condition of the woman.
In addition to studies of the cytological material of the cervix, cell cytology is done by taking analyzes of such liquids as sputum, punctate of the thyroid and mammary glands.
How cytology analysis is performed
The study is foreshadowed by sampling material for analysis. It is performed on a gynecological chair with a special spatula and brush. The collected material is applied to laboratory glass. It is noteworthy that such a smear does not give up at the time of menstrual manifestations. The most common method of taking such a smear is the Papanicolaou cytology method, named after the Greek pathologist George Papanicolaou (PAP-grease).
A smear taken is sent to the cytology laboratory, in which it is stained using a special technology.
Analysis of cervical cytology
After that, he falls into the hands of a microscope technician who assesses the quality of the material collected. The smear material must be suitable in order to consider the pathological processes of epithelial cells. All cells from the smear are evaluated.They must conform to their normal shapes and sizes, they must have the correct ratio between the nucleus and the cell. Changes in these parameters are not always caused by malignant or inflammatory processes. Often, pregnancy, menstruation, and the use of hormonal contraceptive drugs can often lead to some changes in the structure of the cell. Often, unfortunately, the cause of changes in such a smear can be the papillomavirus.
It is noteworthy that the presence of certain pathogens of viruses in a smear of this type increases the likelihood of developing cancer of the uterus and cervical canal.