What is climate?
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The static, long-term weather regime of a given area, according to its geographic location, is usually called a climate. Climate is a whole complex of states through which the system of terrestrial envelopes passes - hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere for decades. Climate also means the average value of the weather for about several decades. It should be taken into account that if the weather suddenly deviates from the climatic norm, then this change should not be defined as a climatic change. For example, abnormally cold winter does not speak about cooling of the climate.
Moisture, heat circulation and atmospheric circulation are those cyclical processes that form the climatic conditions on planet Earth. In addition to the above, climate should also be understood as solar radiation, magnetic fields, atmospheric electricity, in short, all those factors that can affect both positively and negatively on human health. Read more about this effect in our article How climate affects people.
Different climate concepts
In addition to the general concept of climate, there are the following (or private):
- macroclimate - weather conditions on the scale of the planet Earth;
- local climate - climatic conditions of small areas with homogeneous conditions (for example, the climate of the sea coast);
- microclimate - the climate of the lower atmosphere;
- plant climate;
- soil climate.
Climatology is a natural science that deals with climate education on the planet, a description of different types of climate and their classification, as well as the influence of an individual on climate.
Paleoclimatology - is studying the history of climate change in various parts of the world.
Depending on the latitude (from equatorial subtropics to the Arctic), climatic zones and types vary significantly. The classification of climatic zones is represented by 4 categories for each terrestrial hemisphere, between them are the so-called transitional zones (subpolar, subtropical and subequatorial):
- Equatorial belt. It is characterized by an equatorial climate: light wind, small fluctuations in temperature, and abundant precipitation.Basically, the territory of South America, Africa.
- Subequatorial belt with a tropical monsoon climate. Territories of Equatorial Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia.
- Tropical belt. There are both dry and humid climate. African (Sahara), Arabian (Nefud), Australian (LargeVictoria desert) desert.
- Subtropical belt. The continental climate is characteristic (hot summer, frosty winter, scanty rainfall), prevails in a considerable part of the Russian Federation, Ukraine; The Mediterranean climate is the North African coast, the Mediterranean basin of such seas as the Tyrrhenian, Marmara, Aegean, Black, Azov, Adriatic.
- Temperate zone. The climate of this belt is formed over the ocean and is characterized by hot summer, high humidity, a significant amount of precipitation, rather mild winter.
- Polar belt. Polar climate - zones of the Arctic and Antarctic: the average temperature in February in the North. The pole is −43 ° C, significant areas are covered with glaciers, beyond the Arctic Circle most of the water surface is covered with ice for a whole year, characterized by an uneven supply of solar heat.