What is called declension in Russian? Declination of nouns
Many of us still remember from school thatcalled declension. But to reproduce all the nuances associated with it, will not be able to everyone. But the knowledge of the rules related to the declension of nouns will help us not make spelling mistakes in the future.
What is declination
Virtually every independent part of speech (forthe exclusion of adverbs and gerunds) can vary according to one's own rules. Verbs, changing by their faces and numbers, conjugate, and the nominal parts of speech are declined. What does this mean? Declination of words is the ability of nouns, adjectives, numerals and participles to vary by:
- Rodam (male, middle, female, except for nouns).
- Numbers (singular and plural).
- The case.
Known to many a set of Russian rules"Grammar-80" explains in another way what is called declension. He proposes to define it as a change in the class of words by case. Which of the terms is closer and what is called declination, everyone is free to choose himself.
Based on the definition of declension in the Russian language,we need to remember what the case is. They call a grammatical form connecting any noun with the words of other parts of speech. The case shows how exactly the parts of speech agree.
For a long time, the case system was subject tochanges. In the Old Russian language there were not six, as in our time, but seven cases. One more was called "inviting". To date, it has already been abolished, and now there are six.
- Nominative. The singular case, since it is only called direct (who? What?), The others are indirect. In the form of them. pad. the subjects appear in the sentences. Another of its features: it is the initial form for the nominal parts of speech.
- Genitive. This form answers questionsWhom? What?In order not to confuse it with other cases, it is possible to substitute the auxiliary word "no": the cat is him. n, (no) the cat is a genus. P.
- Dative. This case is named so because it answers questionsTo whom? To what?Declination of words will be easier if you substitute the word "give": cat - dates. P.
- Accusative. Quite a controversial form. Has a question similar to the nominative case for inanimate objects -What?However, in relation to living beings ask a questionWhom?The word "blame", substituted for the one he verifies. n., will help you remember the rules of declination: (blame) the cat - the wine. P.
- Instrumental. The singular case. Answers the questionsBy whom? Than?The test word for him is "create": cat - tv. pad.
- Prepositional. Form responding to questionsAbout whom? About what?For easy memorization we substitute the word "think": about a cat - Proposal. P.
We remembered the case system that is being studiedRussian language. Declension also depends on the category of numbers. There are only two of them in our language - single and plural. Almost all nouns have both forms. But, like in any rule, there are exceptions. Some words are used only in one single form. An example of those that have only a single number: the sun (well, it's logical, it exists in one copy), milk, foliage, highway (it's foreign language).
But the Russian language is so diverse that it has in its arsenal words that are used only in the plural. Example: scissors, trousers, glasses, watches, people.
Declination in the Russian language can be carried out in forms of units. h and multipl. h. For example:
Unit. h. Mn.ch.
I.p. book, books.
Rn. books, books.
D.p. book, books.
V.p. book, books.
Gt; book, books.
Par. about the book, about the books.
The first decline
The declination system in Russian, as is known, consists of three groups. Each of them has its own peculiarities. The first declination has the following special features:
- Words calling some males with endings-aor-I: uncle, man, father, Vanya.
- Nouns that also have endings -aor-I, denoting people and objects of the feminine gender: spring, hand, aunt, Anna.
- The same endings (-and I) with nouns of the general genus (that is, simultaneously denote both males and females): a crybaby, a grumbler, a sleepwalker, a slob.
Sample 1 declination (examples):
I.p. a young man, a girl, a crybaby.
Rn. young men, girls, crybaby.
D.p. a young man, a girl, a crybaby.
V.p. a young man, a girl, a crybaby.
Gt; a young man, a girl, a crybaby.
Par. about a young man, about a girl, about a crybaby.
The second declination
This group differs from the previous endings and category of the genus. It includes:
- Nouns that have in the initial form zero endings and are related to the masculine gender: table, stump, ceiling, husband.
- Words of the husband. kind, but ending in -aboutor-e: small house.
- Them. n. with endings -aboutor -emiddle genus: sky, spot, sea, gun.
Sample 2 declination:
I.p. table, happiness.
Rn. table, happiness.
D.p. the table, happiness.
V.p. table, happiness.
Gt; table, happiness.
Par. about the table, happiness.
The third decline
This group of nouns is the most special. It refers only to words of a feminine gender and only with a zero ending: a mouse, a stove, a life, a reality.
It is important to remember the important rule concerningthe third declension: when the word ends in one of the hissing sounds, a soft sign (daughter, night, liver) is necessarily written in it. Do not confuse them with the nouns of the second declension to the hissing (ray, raincoat, tick). They belong to the masculine gender, and therefore do not require writing a soft sign on the end.
Sample 3 declination:
I.p. life, thing.
Rn. life, things.
D.p. life, things.
V.p. life, thing.
Gt; life, thing.
Par. about life, things.
Summarizing the above, we were able to put together the decline of nouns. The table shows more and more clearly. Study it carefully.
Now we know what is called declension and whatwords refer to each of them. But not all the lexical composition of our language is subject to these rules. There are such nouns that have absorbed the endings of both the first and second declensions. They are called staggered.
What are the characteristics of such nouns? First, almost all of them end in -my: time, name, burden, stirrup and others. And the wordwayalso refer to this group.
Secondly, the rules for declining the differently spelled nouns are such that when you change these words, the case of all forms will have a suffix -en(except IP and VP): time, stirrup, seed.
Third, declining these words, we can notice that in the genitive, dative and prepositional they have the ending -andin 3 scrolls, and in the instrumental the ending -em appeared, as in the 2 declination.
In the name, the path.
Rn. name, path.
D.p. name, path.
V.p. name, path.
Gt; name, path.
Par. about the name, about the way.
Our speech is rapidly replenished with new words of foreign origin. They do not have declination forms in the Russian language and are therefore called indeclinable.
This group includes:
- Foreign words that come to us from other languages on-о, -е, -и, - у: coats, fillets, Sochi, kangaroos. In all cases they will have the same form, so there is simply no point in inciting them. (Go to the coat, go to the kangaroo, go to Sochi.)
- Surnames ending in-oh, -oh, -hyh: Yurchenko, Zhivago, White. (To be visiting Kozarenko, come to the Reds.)
- Words formed by the abbreviation: USSR, ATS.
This topic is related to the correct spelling of lettersandandeat the end of the nouns. Following the declining rules, we were able to identify that the endingewrite in words:
- The first declension (the exception is genus): to the river (dat.p.), about the mother (pr.p.), on the topic (dat.p.).
- The second declension: about the ray (pr), about the sea (pr.p.)
Let's write in the end, if this word:
- The third declension: in the steppe (pr.p.), by night (dat.)
- The first skl., Used in gives birth. case: at the river.
- In words ending innoe: in the planetarium, on the action, on the event.
- The undeclared nouns also writeand: in a way, about time.
After reading these simple rules, you will know what is called declension. Do not confuse it with the word change of other parts of speech, as, for example, the conjugation of verbs.
It is necessary to study it, since our theoretical knowledge depends on theoretical knowledge. From our article, we can draw the following conclusions:
- Nouns change not only in cases, but also in numbers.
- But it is worth remembering that not all words of this partspeech have these categories. Some of them can not at all incline (indeclinable) and do not have one of the numerical forms (only plural or single).
- Each of the declensions has its own characteristics, so it is worthwhile to study them carefully. We cited the declension of nouns as an example (table).
- Personal endings that do not have an accent are subject to certain rules. Depending on the declension and the case, the letter will be writtenor e, orand. This topic is one of the most difficult in the course of studying nouns.