What is accounting?
First of all, accounting is an information system whose task is to collect, process and transmit information about a particular farm object in order to meet the needs of various users. In this case, speaking about what is the object of accounting, we mean the property of the enterprise, its obligations and the economic or financial operations carried out by the organization. Incidentally, the latter object is exactly what is the subject of accounting. In general, we can say that boo. Accounting is carefully recorded information about all financial transactions conducted by the organization. It allows you to get the most clear and detailed picture of the financial condition of the subject.
The concept of accounting applies to any company that works with finance and has at least some sources of income and expenses. And the matter concerns not only companies, organizations, but also companies of people.Any youth club or family, involuntarily, in fact, faces the need not only to understand what accounting is, but also to use its systems in practice. So, many families are accustomed to regularly write down their expenses in order to properly organize them in accordance with the amount of income. Thus, accounting allows you to optimize financial transactions.
Accounting: main tasks
Today, considering what accounting is in terms of certain requirements for the content and volume of information, we can distinguish three of its main types: financial and production, also known as management. The financial task is to meet the needs of external participants who are not part of the organization’s staff group.
The managerial is aimed at preparing information for the internal team, the list of which includes service personnel and specialists involved in the management of households. the subject. That is, the data obtained through financial accounting, characterize the results of households. activities.Their users may be company sponsors, tax authorities, etc. non-staff members.
What is management accounting for? Management accounting is a concept that is much broader than financial. Information obtained through it is necessary for the internal operations of the company. The task of management accounting is to ensure that managers responsible for certain production goals with the necessary data. Here, the requirements for maintenance are somewhat different, since management accounting contains confidential information.
Despite the seemingly radical difference between these types of accounting, there are similarities between them. First, most of the indicators Fin. accounting necessarily used in management. Secondly, the data collected for management accounting can also be used to compile fin. documents. And thirdly, the data of the one and the other accounting are equally important and necessary, both for the preparation of the strategic plan of the enterprise, and for the development of internal management decisions.
The first stage of acquaintance with the concept of accounting is the study of its methods.So, what is the accounting method? The term "method" in this case defines a set of possible and accepted methods that allow reflecting a complete picture of the financial and economic activity of an enterprise. Methods include special methods of control objects boo. accounting.
In general, accounting methods are the techniques necessary for studying the activities of an organization, which include documentation, inventory, and accounting accounts. accounting, method of double entry, evaluation, calculation, reporting and balance.
Consider the most important for the "beginners" methods. In fact, we have repeatedly come across the concept of "inventory". This method is necessary in order to have documented data on the availability of assets and liabilities of the organization and their condition. As a rule, the procedure for its implementation is determined directly by the leaders of the enterprise. There are also cases where inventory is necessary. These cases include:
- purchase, sale and transfer of property for rent
- preparation of annual accounting report
- detection of property damage or theft
- natural disaster and other critical situations
- reorganization or liquidation of an enterprise
What is an account of accounting should be dealt with in practice. In short, we can say that the account boo. Accounting is a standard, two-sided table with debit and credit columns displayed. It is also customary to divide bills into active and passive.
Summing up, we can say that through accounting, all information on the state of the enterprise, its property, its source, economic and financial processes and their results are generated and summarized. This information, obtained with the help of accounting, allows us to predict future prospects for the activities and development of the organization.