What is a play?
Drama is one of the three main kinds of literature, which simultaneously corresponds to the three types of art - literature, theater and music.
Drama is mainly associated with the theater, as the main form of entertainment. On its stage, all the "three unities" that underlie any dramaturgical work are realized. Their specific concept, intended for performance from the stage, has long been called plays. The word "play" of French origin and literally means "excerpt", "part", "work". Otherwise, the play can be called any dramatic work intended for staging in the theater, as well as for radio and television performances.
In musical art, a play is understood primarily as the specific name of instrumental music works. However, there are other meanings, for example, a finished piece of music or a small instrumental lyric composition.
Building a play
It should be noted that the concept of the play itself is exclusively formal and does not bear any genre or stylistic burden.However, as a rule, in the title of the play, its genre originality is explained or indicated: comedy, tragedy, drama, tragicomedy, etc.
Any play in the construction of its composition is subject to the laws of the "three oneness", which belong to Aristotle also - the unity of time, place and action.
The logical sequence of action is always spelled out in the following order of elements of the play:
- Exposure is the commissioning of the play. It contains the arrangement of the actors, describes how the circumstances, the reasons for which the plot outline begins to unfold. As a rule, the exposure is before the start of action.
- Outset - here begins to unfold the main conflict of the play.
- The buildup of action is a chain of events originating from the conflict of the play.
- The climax is the peak of the main conflict.
- The denouement of the action is mainly provoked by the climax, we will find out with what the heroes end up: someone loses, wins, and someone dies.
The structure of the play is presented
- dialogues and monologues of heroes;
- author's remarks where the author wants to emphasize, for example, some peculiarities of the hero’s behavior or situation;
- the list of characters, which is given at the very beginning of the play, with an indication of the profession or family ties of the characters;
- acts - the semantic parts of the play, which in turn are divided into smaller ones - episodes, paintings, phenomena.
Features and genre originality
The main difference of the play from other dramatic works is that it was created exclusively for productions in the theater.
Also, the play has a certain chain of development of the plot, about which we spoke a little higher: the exposition - the plot - the growth of the conflict - the climax - the denouement. It should be noted that this state of affairs prevailed in the European theater until the mid-19th century, while the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen reformed the canons of the play. With Ibsen, the dramatic production began to carry an ideological subtext and where it usually ended (the outcome), everything was just beginning for him. The replicas and dialogues of the characters began to play a more significant role in the deployment of the idea and plot. The human voice became the leader in the play, and the hero's psychology became clearer in drama.
The play, as mentioned earlier, is not a special kind or genre of drama, however,it can be staged in any genre, for example, in the comedy genre, where humorous overtones are the driving force of the play. Or, on the contrary, setting in the genre of tragedy - where the plot inevitably moves towards a catastrophic outcome of the action: someone is killed or someone is killed. Genre originality helps the viewer to enter into the author's style of building a play.