What are fugitive vowels: verification, writing rules, exceptions
Who among us, as a schoolboy,how important is it to learn the rules of the Russian language? Sometimes such a simple childish misstep, like unschooled lessons, can play an evil joke in adult life. Yes, the computer age is in the yard, and Word indicates errors, so you do not have to worry about grammar. But we still fill out a lot of documents by hand, we write a lot of applications in the old manner with a pen on paper, and making child mistakes in the text for an educated person is simply unacceptable.
It is often difficult to make a spellingwith a fluent vowel. With this linguistic concept, children are introduced in the fifth grade, but at the end of the school few can remember the rules for writing words falling under this category. In this article you can find information about the origin of these vowels, their spelling and methods of verification.
Definition of term
What are fugitive vowels and why they were so called? Runaway - because it either drops out when the word changes, or appears where it was not before. If we speak linguistic language - the vowels alternate with the zero of sound during the formation and formation of new words.
For example: sleep - sleep, oak - oak, nutlet - nut.
With zero sound alternating -o- and -e-. A fluent vowel can appear and disappear in the prefix, root and suffix of the word.
Where did the fugitive vowels come from? What is reduced vowels, today is not known to everyone. But in the Old Russian language, instead of some of the letters that were familiar today, the so-called ultra-short vowels were used on the letter: b-er, which was read as "O" and b-"yer", which was read as "E". Therefore, with a strong position, they transformed into vowels -o and -e-, and when weak, they disappeared.
For example: Father - father; Father - father.
In modern language, in spoken language, runaway vowelsUsed to facilitate the pronunciation of congestion of consonant sounds. That is why in some word forms and in words when the case changes, the sound then appears, then disappears. For written speech, there are several rules of writing that you need to remember to avoid making mistakes.
Basic forms with fluent vowels
Before learning the rules, it is necessary to determine in what forms of words this orthogram is hidden. There are fugitive vowels in words related to nouns, adjectives and verbs.
It occurs in three forms without end:
- nouns used in the masculine gender of II declension, in the singular nominative case with a suffix - ca.
For example: bag - bag, hammer - hammer.
- nouns used inplural in the declination I and in the middle genus II declension in the genitive case, and also some forms having only a plural with suffixes-er, -ok, -ets.
For example: sister - sisters, day - day, ring - rings.
- a short form of qualitative adjectives,They are used in the singular of the masculine gender and possessive adjectives of the masculine gender in the nominative case in the singular with endings - en, -y, -cha, -yach.
For example: sad - sad - sad, dog - dog - dog.
Fugitive vowels can appear as if in a separateform of the word, and in its related derivatives. In addition, they can act as shock and unstressed sounds. As a rule, in the shock position sounds -o, -e-, -e-, extremely rarely occur-and-. Here it is important to remember that before the letter "i" in the shock position is used -e-, which is heard when pronouncing.
For example: family - family - families - family, sparrow - sparrow.
Given the complexity of determining a fluent vowel inspelling can cause difficulties. To check the majority of cases of this orthogram, two basic rules can be distinguished. The first rule relates to writing the names of adjectives and nouns, the second to verbs.
Knowing what fugitive vowels are, and remembering the simple methods of checking them, you can avoid gross mistakes in writing.
This method of verification refers to the writing of nouns and adjectives. It is important to pay attention to the neighborhood. Namely, what consonants stand next to the runaway vowels.
- If these are solid paired consonants, then you should write the letter "o".
- When it's sibilant, soft paired consonants, and also -y-, then in the word place the letter -e-.
- In the case of the neighborhood of paired soft hissing before -y-, one should use the letter -and-.
How to write verbs with this vowel? In fact, everything is quite simple: if the word after the root has the suffix -a-, - the root letter is written -and-. If this suffix is not present, then the letter -e-.
List of exceptions
There are words that do not fall under the rules, they just need to remember to use correctly.
- Instead of the expected -e-, the letter -y-: hare - hare can be used.
- The expected -e- can be replaced by -и-:worthy - worthy, dignity.
- The letter -e- instead of -and-:judge - judges, gun - rifles, hive - hive, chirya - boil.
Knowledge of what a fugitive vowel is, be sure to come in handy! And to learn the rules and get rid of mistakes is very easy!