What acids are there?
Let's look at inorganic acids,which are of great importance in the chemical industry and chemistry. All acids combine one important property - the content of reactive hydrogen atoms. That is why acids are complex substances, consisting of an acid residue and hydrogen atoms.
Let's see what kind of acids there are, and how they are classified.
Acids are divided by the presence or absence of oxygen in the molecule, as well as by the number of hydrogen atoms. Therefore, acids are classified by composition for oxygen-free and oxygen-containing.
Oxygen-free acids include: hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydrofluoric, hydrogen sulphide, hydroiodic. Oxygen-containing acids include: coal, nitric, sulfur dioxide, silicon, phosphoric, sulfuric.
Classification of acids by the number of atomshydrogen, capable of being replaced by a metal: - monobasic (have one hydrogen atom), - dibasic (have 2 hydrogen atoms), - tribasic (having three hydrogen atoms).
To monobasic acids are: Hydrofluoric, nitric, hydrochloric, hydroiodic, hydrobromic acids. To dibasic acids are: sulfur dioxide, sulfuric, hydrogen sulfide, silicon, carbonic acid. Phosphoric acid refers to tribasic acids.
Chemical properties of acids
We have examined what kind of acids are, now let's see what chemical properties they have.
- The effect of acid solutions on indicators. Most acids, except for silicic acid, are perfectly soluble in water. With the help of indicators acid solutions, getting into the water, change its color. With the help of such indicators it is possible to know the presence of acid. For example, the indicator litmus and methyl orange stain acid solutions in red.
- The acids react with the bases. This process is called the neutralization reaction. The acids react with the bases, forming a salt in which it is always possible to find an unchanged acid residue and water. To carry out the neutralization reaction, it is necessary that at least one of the reacting substances is soluble in water. But, as is known, almost all acids are water-soluble, so they enter into a neutralization reaction with bases, both soluble and insoluble. Exception - silicic acid, it is poorly soluble in water and can only react with soluble bases.
- Acids react with basic oxides. With basic oxides, acids also enter a neutralization reaction in which water and salt are also formed.
- Acids interact with metals. To the reaction of the acid with the metal occurred, you must observe certain conditions. The metal should be of sufficient activity with respect to the acid. To find out whether acid and metal can react, it is necessary to look into a number of metal activities. But, in addition, and the acid should be of sufficient strength, under the power of understanding the ability of the acid to give hydrogen ions.
What acids are there if they are classified by force?
Strong: hydrobromic, sulfuric, hydroiodic, hydrochloric, nitric acids. Weak: phosphoric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, coal, hydrogen sulphide, silicic, carbonic acid.