West Siberian Plain: minerals, accommodation, description
In the world is unlikely to find such a hugeA space with a flat relief, like the West Siberian Plain. The minerals lying on this territory were discovered in 1960. Since then, this natural pantry is of particular value to our state.
The age of the rocks of the West Siberian plain speaks ofthe presence of a huge amount of resources in them. The development of the most northern deposits requires additional time and effort. To date, due to the huge area of marshy swamps in a locality such as the West Siberian Plain, minerals are extracted at a cost of considerable effort.
The West Siberian Plain is withinepihercine plate. It is located on the Asian mainland and occupies almost the entire part of Western Siberia, beginning with the Ural Mountains and ending with the Central Siberian Plateau.
On this plain are the regions of Russia andKazakhstan. The total area of this area is more than three million kilometers. The distance from north to south is two and a half thousand, and from east to west - one thousand nine hundred kilometers.
Description of the West Siberian Plain
This terrain is a surface with a slightly intersected relief, diluted by insignificant fluctuations in relative heights. All this causes a clear zoning of the landscape.
Description of the West Siberian Plain givesthe idea of the characteristic natural complexes of a given locality. The northern part of the territory is dominated by the tundra, and in the south the steppe extends. In view of the fact that the plain is poorly drained, a considerable part of it is occupied by marshland and swampy forests. The total area of such complexes is more than one hundred and twenty-eight million hectares. Due to geographical features, the climate has a volatile character.
The structure of the West Siberian Plain is heterogeneous. Paleozoic rocks are found at great depths, which are covered by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits. The Mesozoic formations represent marine as well as continental deposits of organic substances.
The structure of the West Siberian Plain indicates a repeated change in the conditions of the climate and the regime of accumulation of precipitation on this plate. This was facilitated by its omission at the beginning of the Mesozoic period.
Gray clay, mudstones, glauconite sandstonesrepresent Paleogene deposits. Their accumulation occurred at the very bottom of the Paleogene Sea, which, in turn, connected the Arctic basin with the seas of Central Asia by lowering the Turgai Strait. Subsequently, in the middle of the Oligocene, this sea left the boundaries of Western Siberia. In connection with this, the Upper Paleogene deposits represent sandy-clay continental facies.
The colossal changes in the nature of the clustersedimentary deposits fall on the Neogene. Formed a rock that rises in the southern side of the plain and consists of continental deposits of rivers and lakes. Their formation occurred in the condition of a small dismemberment of the plain, which was covered by subtropical vegetation, then broadleaf deciduous forests. In some places it was possible to meet the territories of savannahs inhabited by giraffes, hipparies, camels.
Process of formation of minerals
Placing the West Siberian Plain suggestspresence of a built-up foundation from Paleozoic [sediments. These deposits cover the cover from loose marine and continental Mesozoic-Cenozoic rocks (clay, sandstone and the like). This gives grounds for assuming that in some places the age of the rocks of the West Siberian Plain reaches one billion years and more.
As a result of the descent of the plate in shallow-water lakesthere was an accumulation of organic substances, which subsequently proved to be conserved under sedimentary rocks. As a result of pressure and the influence of hot temperatures, the formation of minerals began. The obtained substances moved to the sides with the least pressure. As a result of these processes, oil flowed from the submerged state, and gas compounds rose along the edges of the reservoirs. Above the highest elevations of the basins there is a sedimentary rock - clay.
Thanks to the work of geologists in such a territory,as the West Siberian Plain, the minerals found on this locality have become a powerful base for the development of Western Siberia. Here are deposits of resources such as natural gas, iron ore, brown coal, oil.
On the developed wells of Western Siberia,extraction of a large amount of oil. Soft sedimentary rocks are easy to drill. One of the richest and most qualitative deposits of oil is the West Siberian Plain. Minerals have been mined here for more than fifty years. The largest pool is the West Siberian oil and gas. Within the boundaries of the Khanty-Mansiysk syneclise, as well as the Krasnoselsky, Salym and Surgut districts, the largest in our country reserves of shale oil are located in the bed of the Bazhenov suite. They are extracted at a depth of two kilometers.
The cuff of loose deposits encloses the horizon of underground fresh and mineralized waters. Also there are hot springs, the temperature of which varies from a hundred to one hundred and fifty degrees.
West Siberian Plain: minerals (table)
|Sokolovsko-Sarbaisky, Kachar basins||iron ore|
|North-Sosvinsky, Yeniseisko-Chulymsky and Ob-Irtysh basins||brown coal|
|Ayat deposit||Nickel, coal, chromite, bauxite|
|Lisavskoye field||cobalt, building materials, nickel, coal|
|Salty lakes in the south of Western Siberia||cooking and Glauber's salt|
|Yakutian deposits||diamond tubes|
|Lensky, Tunguska, Irkutsk basins||coal|
|Southern and northern deposits of the West Siberian lowland||oil|
Thus, the structure of the West Siberian Plainindicates the solid age of the rocks of this territory and the presence of rich mineral deposits. Despite this, there is a problem of development of gas and oil. It is in difficult natural conditions. The life and work of people in the northern part is greatly complicated by the severe frost and hurricane wind. The ground in the north has frozen the permafrost, so construction is not an easy task. In the summer time, the number of bloodsucking insects that create difficulties for workers is growing.
Instead of concluding
To date, the issue remains urgentprotection and rational use of resources in Western Siberia. Predatory devastation of the surrounding nature can lead to disastrous consequences. It is necessary to take into account that everything in the natural system is interconnected, and therefore one should strive not to violate its harmony.