We grow lupins. Planting and maintenance in the open field
Most gardeners are familiar with lupine, a beautiful decorative flower originally from America. A little earlier it was cultivated only for agricultural purposes, and now he is already loved by gardeners.
More than a hundred years ago, a good decorative variant was obtained by crossing some wild forms of this plant. And later, the Englishman Russell, who had been breeding for fifteen years, managed to get a modern look of lupine with a colorful variety.
What are the lupins, planting and caring for them, how to multiply - all of this will be discussed in this article.
By species, lupins are divided into annual and perennial. There are about two hundred varieties of this flower in the world, and about ten cultivated ones. But most often for the decoration of the landscape is used perennial lupine.
Russell's flowers are hybrid lupins, which have a bright color and are very beautiful. Lupine Russell, planting and caring for which does not differ from other species, is also very popular with gardeners.
The beginning of flowering occurs at the beginning of summer.Their inflorescences are high, bright colors, they are even three-colored, and very much resemble the flowers of peas, it is not for nothing that lupins also belong to the legume family.
Lupine is not whimsical, grows quickly, perfectly tolerates shading and dirty air, in height can reach from half a meter to one and a half meters.
At the end of flowering produces fruits - beans, located inside the pods, which can be used for reproduction. The plant requires renewal every five years.
The root system of the plant goes into the soil up to two meters, and the expanding stems form into a bush two meters in height. Lupine is propagated by seeds, planting and care in this case are not too popular, and grafting.
The plant is used as a fertilizer for the soil, as a fodder crop, as an ingredient in medical preparations. Lupine anglers used as bait.
The following plant varieties are quite popular:
- Minaret. This is a group of perennial breeding species that are planted in isolation from one another. Otherwise, loss of variety may occur due to crossing. The plants of this group are large, up to half a meter tall,forming cone-shaped multi-colored inflorescences from June to September.
- Lulu Perennial, precocious, half a meter high grade. The plants are compact and begin to bloom again at the end of summer after cutting off the first inflorescences.
- Fireworks. Annual tall (up to one meter) lupins with inflorescences of yellow, white and red colors. Seeds are sown in open ground in April. Reproduction occurs by self-seeding, if the buds are not cut. The next year, fresh shoots appear.
In order to grow lupins favorably, planting and caring for them so as not to bring hassle, you need to provide a slightly acidic or alkaline loamy soil. If the soil is too sour, then the culture will degrade flowers and leaf mass, the plant grows weak, faded, painful. On the alkaline earth lupine gets chlorosis. In order to avoid such troubles, acidic soils are treated with lime powder (5 kg per sq. M), alkaline liquids are poured with a weak acid solution or mixed with peat. In this case, lupine is more stable.
Planting and care in the open field is facilitated by the fact that it is not necessary to add nitrogen fertilizers to the soil, because in cooperation with nodule bacteria the plant independently produces food.This process occurs in all legumes.
Loosening of the soil is also not needed, since the root system is a pivotal, powerful enough - it softens the ground layer itself.
If we consider pure varietal lupins, planting and care when growing from purchased seeds is difficult because of their low germination. And the plants grown from seeds grow poorly. But already the seed material collected from these flowers will produce good, adapted for life shoots (autumn planting). They are planted in the fall, and in the spring they give amicable shoots and start blooming in the middle of summer.
Most often practiced spring planting, when the seeds are sown in early April, and the plant begins to bloom in May or June.
The site for planting is chosen in a slightly shaded place with scattered sunlight, the earth is loosened by 25 cm and fertilized with mineral fertilizers: superphosphate, ash, dolomite flour. When digging the soil is mixed with sand and clay. In such a substrate lupine will sprout well.
Planting and care in the open field provide that the seeds should be prepared for sowing as well: they must be soaked with 50% of foundationol.
Seeds deepen into grooves in the prepared area to a depth of approximately 2 cm and sprinkle with a peat layer, planting is well moistened. The landing scheme provides for the distance between the bushes to half a meter, taking into account their future growth. Seeds are covered with soil and sprinkled with peat. Flowers will grow in a fortnight, and they will start blooming in early August.
It is quite simple to care for shoots, it is enough to provide them with good lighting and regular watering. When steady warm weather is established, the lupine will land on a permanent place, and each sprout should already have 4-5 true leaves.
With seeds, you can not only grow lupine in open ground, but also get seedlings for the purpose of early flowering. For this seed is planted in early March.
To grow seedlings at home or in greenhouse conditions it is necessary to prepare the soil: mix peat, sand and garden soil in equal parts. It would be nice to add the pounded tubers of old lupine flowers to enrich the soil with nitrogen.
In total, it will take three weeks to grow the seedlings. It is necessary to calculate the time so that by the time of planting the seedlings on the street was already stable heat, only then can perennial lupine perennial.
Planting and care by technology provides that seeds for seedlings are planted in well drained containers 2 cm deep and covered with a centimeter layer of peat. Well watered and covered with wet gauze. Containers are left in a warm place for two weeks, not forgetting to periodically moisten the soil. When two leaves appeared on the seedlings, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction by cuttings
Reproduction in a vegetative way is most welcome, as it saves plants from varietal mixing. Cuttings can be purchased, and can be cut from an adult lupine at the site.
The formation of kidney renewal occurs near the very base of the stem. With a sharp knife, they are carefully cut out with a piece of root collar. Planted cuttings in individual containers with sandy soil should be immediately. Rooting of lupine will occur in 25 days. After that, the plant is ready for landing on the prepared site on the site.
Lupine can be planted with cuttings both in spring and summer. It is only necessary to take into account that in the spring they are cut off from the basal rosette formed at the base.In summer, lateral shoots that form in the lupine's axils are better suited to cuttings.
Perennial lupine: planting and care, photo
Lupine is an unpretentious plant, so in the first year after planting it requires the following:
- Be sure to periodically weed the plot, removing weeds and loosening the ground.
- Requires regular abundant, but rare watering (a couple of times a week).
- If, after watering, the basal neck is exposed, it is compounded by spuds.
- At the end of the summer, planting should be fertilized with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
- Before the seeds ripen, the peduncles need to be trimmed so that the plant blooms again.
In the first year, they increase leaf mass and therefore lupins do not bloom.
Planting and care in the second year is that the plant continues to spud. If it is planted in a place where the wind blows, you can make a prop. It is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers for feeding: a mixture of 5 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of superphosphate per square meter.
Every four to five years, plants are updated. Tree lupins for the winter cover.
Lupine flower: planting and caring for an annual
Annual lupine varieties grow well in fertilelight soils. The plant requires moderate soil moisture, and in spring you can feed it with mineral fertilizer.
It is also necessary to weed the soil in a timely manner, remove weeds and flowering inflorescences.
Annual planting is as follows:
- sow the seeds must be immediately to the place of constant growth;
- 2-3 seeds are placed in the hole with a distance of about 6 cm;
- after the emergence of shoots, it is necessary to assess their density and thin out if necessary;
- after watering the land is loosened.
Lupine seed material remains viable for up to five years.
Lupine: diseases and pests
Pests and diseases dangerous to lupine are as follows:
- Aphid. It is required to spray with garlic water or special means.
- Nodule weevils. The fight is similar to the fight against aphids.
- Anthracnose. It is necessary to use fungicides such as "Ridomil", "Mikal" and "Arceride".
- Mealy dew.
When a plant is damaged by the last two species, the leaves become covered with brown spots, and white rot appears at the root. To combat them, the affected areas are cut and destroyed. Usually fresh shoots grow healthy.With a strong spread of infection after cutting diseased bushes, the earth is cultivated by liming and digging.
Properties and application of lupine
The article describes what kind of flowers are lupins, planting and care, photos, but people also have some interest in this plant.
And it is caused by the fact that:
- Its seeds contain 50% protein mass and 20% oil, as well as a significant amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
- This is an excellent feed raw material: the foliage of the plant contains almost 3% of fresh protein and 16% in dried. In the grain, this parameter reaches 40%.
- Lupine seeds are rich in lupanin and lupinin alkaloids (about 2%).
- The seeds of the plant are capable of treating diabetes and lowering blood cholesterol. The protein glycoprotein in the seed composition can replace insulin.
- In folk practice, acne, ulcers, skin lesions, inflammations of joints, prickly heat, spleen and liver are treated with broth from lupine.
- Official studies are conducted on the subject of studying the action of lupine in cardiovascular diseases, its antioxidant properties.
In cosmetology, lupine oil is included in creams and masks.