In order to understand what the causes of military communism are and what it generally is, it is necessary first to understand the public sentiment and the government course of the Bolshevik Party in the turbulent years of the civil war. ATin the conditions of confrontation with counter-revolution, the Bolsheviks simply needed to mobilize all the forces of the territories under their control for victory. The complex of such actions and became military communism. These measures were carried out for three years, from early 1918 to March 1921.
The main measures of the Bolsheviks
- nationalization of all state industry and banking structures;
- monopolization by the state of foreign trade;
- the food dictatorship of the CPSU (b), which resulted in the infamous surplus;
- forced labor service of the able-bodied population.
Thus, military communism intended to turn state resources to help the Bolsheviks in the civil war. However, this policy led to largely unpredictable results and mass unrest among the people.
Conducting the policy of war communism
The most hated for the majority of the population, and Russia then was a peasant country, became surplus. She suggested the selection of a significant part of the bread from the peasants in favor of the hungry city. The fact is that war and revolutionary lawlessness violated the traditional trade relations of the city with the village and led to an explosive situation in many workers' enterprises. For peasants, norms of per capita consumption were introduced, everything else was subject to withdrawal. Spawned problems of military communism and in the cities. Instead of the expected growth in labor productivity as a result of nationalization and labor service laws, the economy began to plummet and industrial growth slowed. This was caused by a weakening of discipline in enterprises and ineffective new managers.
At the same time, in spite of all the problems, military communism bore fruit and ensured the necessary outcome in the confrontation with the reactionary generals. Let the output was received and virtually destroyed the state. NegativeThe leaders of the ruling party, including Lenin, also noted the tendency of such a policy.However, it was insisted that, although it did not generally meet the requirements of either the working class or the peasants, it was necessary in the extreme conditions of the civil war as a temporary measure. The fall of industry was accompanied by an unprecedented rate of inflation, even under the tsar's rule. After the approval of the Bolsheviks in power and the defeat of the white army, military communism was replaced by a new economic policy. The NEP, which was conducted from 1921 to the mid-twenties, suggested some easing in market trade and allowed certain forms of ownership. With the help of such measures it was planned to stabilize the economy of the young state and subsequently smoothly go over to socialism. Both military communism and NEP were a reaction to the socio-political and economic situation in the country.