Ventilation in your own home. Scheme. Instructions on the device ventilation system
If you will be equipped with ventilation in your house with your own hands, then it is important to understand the features and types of these systems.
If we consider ventilation from a technical point of view, it can be divided into three categories, the first one assumes the purpose, the second one is a type of air movement, while the third one is the method of movement of air masses. As for the functional purpose, the ventilation systems can be exhaust, intake and recycling. In the latter, pure oxygen is supplied, to which a certain amount of exhaust air is suspended. Before you install ventilation in your home with your own hands, you need to become familiar with the methods of moving air masses, so they can be duct-free and duct-free.These systems can be divided by the type of motivating forces - ventilation can be natural or mechanical.
Features of the choice of ventilation system
If you have to work with a very oversized building, it is recommended to choose a natural system. This feature is relevant in conditions that have a clean atmosphere. With regard to large cottages, as well as housing, which is located in regions of atmospheric pollution, it is recommended to use the supply and exhaust mechanical system.
If the ventilation in your house will be equipped with your own hands, then it is recommended to use a natural air injection system for brick, wooden, foam block and claydite-concrete buildings. If the walls are based on sandwich panels, MDM, polystyrene foam concrete, and 3D panels, then forced ventilation is perfect. Such systems are mounted in frame buildings, which are built on Canadian technology. You can use a mixed variety. It is used when the natural system does not cope with its tasks, despite the excellent traction.Thus, mechanical structures are mounted only in those rooms where the air is polluted, or condensate forms on the surfaces.
It is worth noting that household spaces affect the atmosphere inside the living space. Therefore, in most cases there is a need for arranging the enforcement system.
Ventilation parameters for residential building
If you will be equipped with ventilation in your house with your own hands, you must correctly determine the volume of the system. If there is no urgent need for a forced construction, it is recommended to limit the natural influx. Each system has its own rate of flow rate. If we are talking about natural ventilation, then this parameter does not exceed 1 cubic meter per hour, with a mechanical system, this figure varies from 3 to 5 cubic meters per hour. Quite often in residential buildings there is a very insignificant speed of air movement, while there is a need to equip forced ventilation. These cases may suggest that there is no possibility of an increase during the ventilation duct.
If a natural type of oxygen injection is installed, then in order to skip air masses in a volume of 300 cubic meters per hour, it will be necessary to install a duct whose size is 250 x 400 millimeters. This suggests 350 millimeters in diameter. If a mechanical version of the system is used, then it is permissible to limit to a channel that has a diameter of 200 millimeters. Moreover, its size should be equal to 160 x 200 millimeters. In the case that does not provide for the possibility to build a large-sized channel of the natural system in the wall, it is recommended to install mechanical ventilation.
If you will be installing ventilation, it is important to make a calculation. The most important factors that influence the results are the area of the house, the number of people who are constantly in the living space, and the volume of air in all the living rooms. It should be noted that all electrical equipment, as well as household appliances by type of gas stoves function, reducing the amount of clean air. When calculating the ventilation, it is necessary to consider which rooms need the strongest air purification and the replacement of spent oxygen.Quite often, calculations of multiplicity, area and sanitary standards are used.
When installing ventilation, it is recommended to use the easiest way, which involves the use of data on the area. If we are talking about residential premises, it is important to take into account that 3 cubic meters of clean air per hour should be received per square meter. It does not take into account the number of people who live in the house. If you use a similar calculation scheme, then you need to determine the figure, which is obtained by multiplying the area of the house by the air rate. In this case, the calculation of ventilation will be considered on the example of a residential building, the area of which is equal to 120 square meters. In order to determine the amount of air exchange per hour, you need to multiply 120 by 3. As a result, you get a figure equal to 360, just such an amount of air in cubic meters should come in one hour.
Alternative calculation options
The calculation of ventilation according to the rate of air exchange is somewhat more complicated than the above. In the process of calculation, you must use a number of indicators.These manipulations can only produce a specialist. As a result, it is possible to obtain the rate of air exchange, which indicates how many times per hour the air should be replaced with a new one. For different rooms should apply the relevant regulations. If sanitary standards are used in the calculations, then in addition to the rate of air exchange, standards should be applied, which are calculated in cubic meters per hour per person. This calculation is differentiated for rooms of different purposes, be it a study, kitchen or bedroom. In the end, it is possible to obtain data that should be summarized by determining the amount of air exchange.
Selection of the cross section of the ventilation system channel
Installation of ventilation involves the need not only for proper calculation, but also for selecting the duct scheme. On sale you can find two types of hard channels. One of them has a circular cross section, while the second - rectangular. In the latter, the ratio of the sides of the duct must be observed. It is 3 to 1. If we are talking about a mechanical system, then the air velocity should be five meters per second, in branches this parameter drops to three meters in one second.Natural ventilation provides a speed equivalent to one meter per second. In order to determine the section of the duct, you should use a diagram, it takes into account what the air flow is, the speed of its movement, etc. If the indicator of standard air exchange is 360 cubic meters per hour, the installation of forced ventilation involves the use of an duct with a cross section of 160 x 200 millimeters. This indicator refers to the square channel. For a round ventilation duct, the diameter should be 200 millimeters.
Installation instructions for the ventilation system
If the ventilation in the house will be equipped, the scheme will help you in the work. It is recommended to place the main channel in the wall, which passes through the central part of the building. In this case, it is enough to simply connect pipes made of plastic to the main channel. They will ensure the removal of air from each dwelling. It is important to consider when installing the system that there should be a minimum number of horizontal sections. This will increase the efficiency of the ventilation.The channels should be interconnected, and the exhaust air should be removed through a single pipe, which will be located on the roof. When ventilation is set up in a private house with your own hands, the channel section should be equal to 130 x 130 millimeters. In this case, we are talking about the element that will be installed in the wall. The thickness of the latter should be equal to 380 millimeters and more.
If a heating boiler or a fireplace is installed in the house, then the ventilation duct for this equipment should have a square cross section, its size is 135 x 260 millimeters. Before you do the ventilation, you need to stock up on a plastic pipe that will be used for wiring. Its diameter can vary from 100 to 120 millimeters. Installing the exhaust pipe, you must use a material whose wall thickness is equal to two and a half bricks. Removing the exhaust pipe, it should be placed above the ridge, which is installed on the roof.
The nuances of the installation work
If the pipes have too thin walls, then inside, in cold weather, the air will quickly freeze through, sinking back into the living space.Whereas if the tube is not made high enough, the turbulence created on the roof surface will contribute to breaking the thrust.
Experts on the features of installation work
When taps are installed for ventilation, it is important to take care of the flow of air masses. This process is an air exchange between the rooms of the house. If the door structures are airtight, then this cannot be ensured. This indicates that the ventilation system is not able to perform its functions.
Between the interior door and the floor surface, you must leave a gap, the width of which is equal to twenty millimeters. Another option is the installation of the grille, which is located at the bottom of the door leaf. When natural ventilation is established, these rules must be taken into account. If it was decided to mount the integrated system, exhaust and intake openings should be provided with fans. Experts recommend installing in this case the heat exchanger, which plays the role of a heat exchanger. This approach is considered the most rational.
Before starting the arrangement of ventilation, it is necessary to determine what design features the system will have. This is the only way to ensure efficient and complete air exchange, which provides the premises with a favorable climate. These features must be taken into account even before the planning of the ventilation system, the cost of which can be justified during the operation. Indeed, otherwise you can not avoid problems with mold and fungi that will form on the walls.