Ventilation in the cellar with your own hands: a scheme, installation and recommendations
Growing fruits and vegetables must be preserved untilnext season, to provide itself with products for the whole year. Requires a dry and cool room. Only a cellar made in accordance with all requirements will cope with a similar task.
What is the use of ventilation?
To store vegetables, ventilation is installed in thecellar with their own hands. The scheme should ensure the functioning by creating a temperature drop outside and inside. Warm air flows go up, and cold flows from below. How to make ventilation in the cellar and cellar? This requires the creation of devices for the inflow of dry and outflow of moist air, for which the pipes are usually used.
Increased dampness is not suitable for a cellar orthe basement. In them, it is necessary to remove moisture first and foremost by creating tightness and preventing leaks in underground communications. The more in the basement of water, the higher the loss of food during storage. In addition, the raw cellar has a negative effect on the microclimate in the house.
Natural and forced ventilation
For the purpose of regulating the humidity of the air, ventilation in the cellar has long been invented. A detailed scheme includes natural air circulation and forced, although they can exist and separate.
The first version of the natural inflow system anddrawing does not require energy costs and is very popular. It does not require special professionalism and skills, so that the ventilation of the cellar itself was made by oneself. How to do it, decide even when designing the building. In the basement of any building provide vent.
This is done simply and is an efficient solution that does not require cost. From rodents they are covered with nets of metal, and if necessary cover.
How to equip ventilation?
Ventilation of the cellar or basement with their own handsis made in rooms of large sizes, with a ceiling height of more than 2 m. The drawer enters the cellar under the ceiling, and exits through the roof of the house, garage, shed, as warm and humid air accumulates at the top and needs to be removed.
Arrangement of air ducts
Pipes are best placed next to the fireplace orfurnace. Then the thrust will be much greater. The supply pipe also opens onto the roof, but its lower part is located in the opposite corner. Thrust will be better if the pipe is shorter or has a larger diameter. It is made at a height of 50-60 cm from the lower level of the room. Then the cold air outside will come to the bottom of the cellar. If the pipes are placed side by side, a limited area will be ventilated, and the rest of the room will be damp. They should have as few turns and bends as possible. Dampers are installed on the air ducts to regulate heat exchange and humidity. How should the ventilation of the cellar be made with our own hands? The installation scheme is shown in the image below.
The dimensions of the pipes are determined by the dimensions of the cellar or basement. At 1 m2area should account for 26 cm2of the cross section of the duct. Then, for a room with an area of 6x8 m and a height of more than 2 m, the diameter of the boxes will be 40 cm. In addition, with increasing depth of the cellar, the cross section of the pipe should increase. For a small cellar, one air duct can suffice. It can be made of wood and divided into two parts - supply and exhaust. The presence of two pipes for him will also be an effective solution. From above they are closed by peaks from precipitation.
Water vapor passing through a chimney, in winterfreeze, reducing the entrance area. They try to insulate it, especially in places of backfilling with earth and access to the roof. It would be better to put another pipe or casing on the outside with a gasket between them of thermal insulation, for example, mineral wool. The budget option will be the use of an asbestos-cement pipe, which has the necessary strength and low thermal conductivity. Also, moisture condenses less on it. During the cold weather, the passage section of the exhaust pipe is cleaned to avoid clogging. For better traction, make it as high as possible.
Forced ventilation can be done withoutadditional power inputs. For this purpose, a deflector is installed on top of the exhaust pipe. When a wind appears inside the pipe, a vacuum develops, which promotes additional air exchange.
How to manage the air circulation in the basement?
Forced ventilation of the cellar with their own hands is installed in addition to the natural one, if the latter can not fully perform its functions.
The system is checked for quality of workby bringing the lit match to the bottom opening of the hood. If it does not burn, then in the cellar there is no circulation and a lot of carbon dioxide. Reduce its number can be, if you install a supply pipe with a large diameter. The presence of dampers on the air ducts allows to regulate the intensity of air exchange and the temperature regime in the room. At the same time there should not be stagnation or its cooling by intensive circulation. The indicator of improper organization of the hood is the presence of condensation on the walls.
High-quality temperature controlis provided only in the presence of thermal insulation. In addition, without it, condensate accumulates on the concrete ceiling and walls. The budget solution is to cover the foam sheets. In this case, attention should be paid to joints where moisture can form.
For the arrangement of ventilation you will need the following:
- PVC pipes;
- bolts, nuts.
Light pipes keep securely on the walls. If they are made of metal, it is better to use welding and fastening in the walls. Wooden air ducts are treated with special compounds from decay.
In the exhaust pipe (20-30 cm from the lower end), an opening is made for draining the condensate. To it is connected a branch pipe, connected with a container for collecting liquid.
Requirements for storage conditions in the cellar
In order for a room to meet functional requirements, it must have the following conditions:
- Full blackout. Windows inside should not be, and artificial lighting is used only when visiting the room.
- The temperature inside during the warm period of the year should be lower than outside.
- The moisture content in the air of the cellar should not exceed 90%.
- Constant air exchange is created by the correct natural air circulation in the cellar. It is necessary to prevent stagnation of air, but do not overheat or cool it unnecessarily.
How the ventilation in the cellar is done by oneself. Installation diagram
If the basement has already been blocked, openings for mounting ducts are punched from above at opposite angles at a rate of 26 cm2/ m2area. The exhaust duct descends through the hole inwards, so that the lower end is under the ceiling, with an indentation of no more than 100-150 mm. Its upper part is led out through the roof to a height of 150 cm. The supply air duct is led to another opening 20-25 cm from the basement floor. Then the slits are sealed with cement mortar.
Ventilation in the cellar: device, microclimate maintenance scheme
- Periodical ventilation. In the warm period, as well as before laying vegetables, everything that can be opened: hatches, doors and flaps on pipes. As a result, the cellar is dried.
- When the room is strongly impregnated with moisture, all the trees are removed from it and dried under the sun. The cellar can be further ventilated by fans 3-5 days before the autumn laying.
- Excess moisture is removed if the cellar is putcapacity with quicklime. If you light a candle in front of the exhaust pipe, the thrust will increase and ventilation will improve. Effective is the use of electric heaters or home fans, installed in the middle of the cellar.
After drying, the walls and ceiling are covered with a deep penetration impregnation, which is applied in layers. A waterproof surface forms, allowing only air and steam to pass through.
When the hood works normally, as the ventilation in the cellar is made by hand, the scheme provides for normal ventilation. It is enough to create the necessary microclimate.
How correctly to make an extract in a garage cellar? The advice of specialists is as follows:
- In the cold period, the hood must be covered,so as not to cool the basement. At the same time, a lot of moisture is formed in it, which negatively affects the safety of the products. For ventilation, a steel or wooden grate is placed on the manhole and covered with old blankets and other rags. Warm air and steam exit through the pores, not forming ice. At the same time, the dampness in the cellar is reduced and the vegetables are kept better. Materials with low porosity for shelter are not suitable (synthetics, tarpaulin, film).
- It is not recommended to dry the cellar unnecessarily, as this negatively affects the safety of the products. Sometimes you need to increase the humidity. For this purpose, the floor is sprinkled with wet sawdust or sand.
- Supply and exhaust ventilation can not cope withtheir duties, if the air temperature in the cellar and outside is the same. Then an electric fan is installed in the exhaust pipe, when switched on, musty air is forcibly expelled from the room. Great power is not required for this. The additional device should not interfere with natural air exchange. For this, the diameter of the exhaust pipe is more than calculated.
You can make a comfortable room with optimalconditions of storage of vegetables, if natural ventilation in the cellar is equipped with their own hands. The scheme provides for the presence of two boxes - supply and exhaust, which must be properly designed and installed with the ability to regulate the passage sections.