Universal tractor T-100: modifications, specifications and reviews
Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant for its long-termhistory produced a lot of technology that has become a landmark for the industry of the Soviet Union. A striking example is the famous "weaving" - universal tractor T-100.
Creating a Model
Industrial Soviet tractor, as well as manyother types of equipment in those days, named in honor of JV Stalin Stalin C-100, underwent serious changes in the early 60-ies of the XX century. First there was a modification of T-108. It was released only three years. In 1964, the plant began to produce "weaving". And after four years the T-100 tractor was awarded a gold medal at the international exhibition.
Heavy crawler was designed forindustry and construction. Designed as a bulldozer with rope control. Later, it was decided to upgrade to use a variety of attachments. Unlike its predecessor, which had only two modifications, fourteen kinds of special equipment were produced on the basis of the crawler T-100.
"Sotka", as an industrial tractor, wasthe traction class 10. By the way, the modern T-25 wheel (100% universal tractor, as it is proudly called) refers to the traction class 0.6. This category is determined by the maximum effort, which under certain strictly established conditions can develop a wheel or tracked vehicle.
Based on user reviews, the T-100 tractortechnical characteristics is better than the parameters of the S-100. And all thanks to the use of another engine. That is why he found a wider application in the national economy. The design mass of the tractor was 11.1 tons. The diesel engine with a cylinder capacity of 15.5 liters reached a maximum capacity of 108 liters. from. at a crankshaft speed of 1070 rpm. At low speeds, the multitone machine consumed almost 20 liters of diesel per hour. But the tank held it about 240 liters.
"Sotka" developed a nominal force (6 tons) forsecond gear at a speed of up to 4 km / h. This corresponds to the sixth traction class of agricultural machinery. To the higher, tenth category for the maximum tractive effort (9.5 tons) in the first gear and the speed is less than 2.5 km / h, the T-100 tractor was classified according to the industrial classification. And that is not all. Traction effort was reduced with increasing speed. Consumers claim that in the fifth gear it was the maximum - more than 10 km / hour. Not a bad indicator! But the tractive effort was 2 tons at that.
Tractor power plant
The power plant, which was used fortractor C-100, was seriously upgraded specifically for the "hundred". And received the number D-108. The four-cylinder four-stroke engine had a mass of more than 2 tons. The layout of the engine has not changed, but the chamber in which the mixture takes place and the combustion of fuel is performed in the bottom of the piston. He also had two oil-lifting and three compression rings. The bronze bushings were pressed into the cylinder heads to install the injectors. Instead of a single spray hole, they began to perform five. In addition, a centrifuge was installed in the oil filter.
Tractor T-100 was the first industrial machine inwhich was used to start the engine. With the help of the P-23 installation with an electric starter, the main diesel engine was started in winter. Judging by the responses of people who used to drive this machine at least once, another useful mechanism was used in the tractor. It is a vacuum device that operated on the energy of the exhaust gases. It allowed to fill the fuel tanks, located below the level of the fuel tank.
Unlike the engine, it has not undergoneserious changes. Customer feedback indicated that the clutch, which is a separate unit, is easy to dismantle. The dry single-plate clutch was controlled from the cab by a special lever, thanks to the lever-cam control mechanism. The mechanical three-way, reverse gearbox had five forward gears and four rear gears. Conical central - with the driven gear on the flange and with the leading unit, which was made on the bottom shaft of the box, as a single unit.
Rotary couplings were dry, multi-disc. In them, the driven discs are made with friction pads. They could be controlled by servo-arms. T-100 - a tractor, the characteristics of which allowed for five gears when driving forward to change the speed from 2.3 to 10.1 km / h, and on the four rear - from 2.8 to 7.6 km / h.
The consumer's opinions agreed thatcaterpillar tractor in front of the wheel has the advantage of patency in soft soils due to less specific pressure on the soil. For T-100, this figure was 4.6 N / cm2.
As the buyers claimed in their reviews,The main disadvantage of a crawler tractor, again in comparison with a wheeled tractor, is the more complicated structure of the running gear. Semi-rigid system "hundred" consisted of caterpillar trolleys with a balancing device and caterpillars. They were carried out in the form of a welded box-section frame. The links of the caterpillar chain were connected with each other by bushings and fingers placed on them. There were fixed shoes of a special profile. The chain is mounted on wheels with a tensioning mechanism, supporting and supporting rollers. The balanced suspension was made in the form of a spring plate with two stabilizing springs, smaller in size.
T-100 (tractor) reviews and now, against the backgroundmodern technology, has a positive. It was equipped with a comfortable cabin for those times. It was installed behind the engine on a rigid frame. Inside, the driver was provided with a soft seat, lighting and a forced ventilation system. Today, unfortunately, the T-100 is a tractor (photo below), which became only a memory. But in the 1970s he competed with the technique of leading foreign firms. However, it was not enough. And it was used only on construction sites of union value, for example at the BAM.
Dimensions of heavy crawler tractor (L × W × H) -4.3 × 2.5 × 3.1 m. The length of the track support surface is 2.4 m, the gauge is 1.9 m, the ground clearance is 0.3 m. Another important indicator of the technology is the specific metal capacity. It is almost 103 kg / hp.
Modifications of the tractor
At the very beginning of the "weaving" was aggregated withbulldozer DZ-53, in which the management of the blade was rope. Then it was modernized by installing a more modern hydraulic system. The new car was designated DZ-54. And already to it fourteen kinds of the hinged equipment for use in various building and road works were issued. It was the stubble stump, and the brush cutter, and the ripper, and the stone eliminator, and the broadener. On the chassis T-100 mounted piling coppers, cranes and pipelayers.
In the responses of ordinary tractor drivers it was stated thatThe modification of the T-100 MGP had hydraulic equipment, the front mounted system, and instead of the winch - a rigid coupling device. It provided the output mechanisms for connecting the power take-off shaft and rear attachment system. Both of these modifications were produced as a bog-carrier, the tracks of which had a wider section - T-100 B and T-100 BG.
The letter "T" in the name was notedpipe-laying, in which, instead of hydraulic systems, fastenings were provided for specialized units and devices. Tractor T-100 MGP-1 was produced in a lightweight version without a cabin. The last modification of the "hundred", which was already produced in parallel with the new T-130, was the T-100 MZGP with hydraulic servo steering mechanisms. And, perhaps, only it can still be found. And even buy.
Modifications of the tractor for agriculture
It was intended to use a crawler tractorT-100 and in agriculture. But in the feedback of users it was indicated that its speed is very low. Therefore, he did not receive any distribution. The modification had the designation T-100 MGS. It had a separate unitary unified hydraulic system and a rear linkage mechanism. The T-100 MGS-1 tractor did not possess this mechanism. The shaft of the power take-off shaft was installed at the winch site. For comparison: the T-25, as a 100% tractor for agriculture with dimensions of 3.0 × 1.5 m, can change the ground clearance and overall height depending on the equipment being hung. The range of its speeds when moving forward is from 6 to 22 km / h.
The name tractor T-100 - "weaving" - becamecommon. It still means later models: T-130, T-170, T-10. Compared with new, modern options, the car is characterized by heavy and uncomfortable working conditions for the driver. Despite this, at all times it was reliable and durable, almost did not break down and had high traffic.