Turgenev's "Notes of the Hunter": a brief summary of the collection
Today, any educated person is familiar witha collection of short stories and essays "Notes of a Hunter" by Turgenev. However, each of them outlines its own content. One reader is more fond of the deep folk wisdom laid in "Horus and Kalinych"; another - watercolor fleeting smears of "Beige Meadow"; the third can not distinguish something, stringing, like beads, the story behind the story, trying to catch the essence of everyone. In this article, we will try to consider what idea the book "Hunter's Notes" expresses. Turgenev as a writer is multidimensional, so please do not take the conclusions of the article as the only possible opinion, and after reading the book, make your verdict. "Hunter's Notes" refer to the classics, which should be re-read to notice new shades.
Social ideas of the work
Let us recall what social ideas contain "Noteshunter "Turgenev. The summary of the collection can be expressed in one phrase: the general picture, presented with the help of various mini-plots, a picture of the life of the Russian people. Serfdom has become a clear brake on the further development of Russia. And the reason for preserving this form of legalized slavery was the understanding of what the Russian peasantry is. Two political trends openly and actively advocated slavery. First, we are talking about the populist position of the big bourgeoisie (at the same time - the official point of view of power). She translated the question into the plane of psychology, ranting about the fact that landowners are fathers, and peasants are children. Accordingly, the lack of rights of peasants "covered up" the harmony of relations. The second point of view was expressed by the so-called Narodniks. Those hated any reforms in Russia, since the time of Peter I, idealizing pre-Petrine, boyar Russia. Both views were deceitful, it was pure water discourse, leading the public's attention away from the essence of the matter.
It would seem that the lyricist-Turgenev wrote Noteshunter ". The brief content of the book, if one starts from the title, should be completely banal: the impressions of the Oryol landlord, a nature lover who is fond of hunting. What is easier? I went hunting and hung up my gun on a nail. He took a pen and wrote another "short report". But no! The work, consisting of 25 seemingly completely different parts, turned out to be monolithic, giving a vivid and truthful display of the Russian outback in the mid-19th century. This is one of the most vivid and imaginative books about peasant Russia. It is written so expertly that later descendants will call Turgenev's syllable "poems in prose."
The story "The Chorus and Kalinych" tells about twofriends-serfs from the peasant environment. The value is that the characters are real. The village of Khorevka, the Ulyanovsk region of the Kaluga region, is the overgrown Khorya farmstead. Both of them are not "hammered" peasants, both are bright personalities, intellectually - exceeding the level of their "master", the landowner Polutykin. The chorus is a business executive, an organizer and a hard worker. He and his six sons and their families jointly lead a strong, profitable peasant economy. At the same time, the Chor remains in the status of a serf, deviating from the proposals of Polutykin - to redeem himself, considering it an indecent waste of money and regularly paying double the rent. Kalinych is a man of high spirituality and intimacy with nature. He is Polutikin's first assistant in hunting games. But this is not the main thing in it. He understands nature. To shake the unbroken horse, to start talking, to calm the worn out bees-that's what Kalinych is capable of. It is this story that refutes the view of the bourgeoisie and the Narodniks on the Russian peasantry, Turgenev's Notes of the Hunter. The summary of "Khorya and Kalinich" asserts, in opposition to the Narodniks, that the Russian people are not afraid of change, but go to them if they see this as practical. The bourgeois position on the "landlord fathers" contradicts the whole content of the story: both peasants are much smarter, deeper and more interesting than their master, Polutykin.
The story "Bezhin Meadow" introduces us along withlurking in the steppe, a resting landowner-hunter in a boy's freeman. Children graze horses in the night, rest at the fire, talk. In their mouths fiction is confused with reality, the beauty of the steppe is with the perception of life. The artist of the word, Turgenev depicts a real, fleeting and unreasoned picture. Everyone, reading the story, finds in it analogies with his childhood, carried away, like horses in the steppe.
Limited by the volume of the article, we can onlymention some other stories. Bitterness and pain sound in the mouth of 50-year-old Vlas, who lost his son, an assistant in the household ("Cowberry water"). The Barin, who was not of the breadth of heart, not only did not sympathize with him, but also refused to lower the obrok, and Vlas's position became generally hopeless. In the story "Ermolai and Miller" we learn about the grievous fate of the miller Arina, whose love for Petrushka's servant literally "trampled" the angry landowner Zverkov. He shaved the pregnant servants, dressed them in rags and sent them to the village. The writer's anxiety is filled with the story "Knocks". The title of the story is both direct and figurative. They say that if you press your ear against the ground in the steppe, you can hear the approaching or retreating horsemen. The landowner-hunter, riding on the tarantas in Tula for a fraction with the coachman Philotheus, hears such a sound. Soon they were caught, blocking the road, a cart drawn by a troika. The cart was ruled by a tall, strong man, with him there were six more men, all drunk. They asked for money. Having received - they left. Good luck turned out for the landowner a meeting with the robbers, but soon, as the story shows, under similar circumstances in the steppe the merchant was killed.
Each of the 25 stories introduces its own nuance, shadein the general picture of a picture of a national life of "Notes of the hunter". The picture is alarming. For the beauty of nature and Russian characters obvious obvious glaring social contradictions are seen. The whole point of the collection is reduced to the urgent need for the widest state reforms for the whole country.
Ironically, they are not fiery revolutionaries, butthe lyricist Turgenev turned this question, as the people say, "from head to foot". The book was relevant, it was loved by readers. Turgenev himself recalls an episode of how the young people-raznochintsy who met him at the railway station expressed their gratitude from all of Russia, bowing to the belt.
Immediately after writing in the category of classics of hercarried Chernyshevsky, Herzen. It is difficult to overestimate the role played by Turgenev in the abolition of serfdom. Their brief content was familiar to many people, but the fact that this book was one of the favorites of Emperor Alexander II, the Liberator, is evidenced by historians.