TP-82 pistol of SONAZ complex: description, characteristics, manufacturer
TP-82 is a three-barrel non-automatic pistol, which, being a part of the SONAZ complex (a portable weapon of a portable emergency reserve), is designed to help astronauts who, for one reason or another, landed or descended in a deserted area to survive. With it, you can defend against wild animals and criminal elements, get food by hunting and give emergency signals. Let's find out what is more remarkable about this gun and what technical parameters it possesses!
Weapons for the self-defense of astronauts were created in the 90s of the last century in the Soviet Union. The initiator of the creation of the three-barrel pistol for survival was the famous cosmonaut Alexei Leonov. In 1979, he visited the Tula Arms Plant and told its designers the history of astronauts from the Voskhod-2 spacecraft (one of them was Leonov himself) who made an emergency landing 200 kilometers from Perm in 1965.
The astronauts lost contact with the search team and waited for help in the winter forest for about two days. Hours spent in such conditions could be their last. The helicopter pilots quickly discovered the astronauts, but due to the heavy snowiness of the surrounding areas they could not find a place to land. Rescuers had to land at 9 kilometers from the accident site and get there on skis. High snow and severe frost are not the only factors that could put the success of the operation into question. The fact is that in the Perm forests there are a huge number of wild predatory animals that can easily attack humans. In such circumstances, the astronauts were completely unarmed. The Makarov pistol, which was part of the astronauts emergency reserve since the time of the first flights, was not effective enough in extreme conditions. Leonov remarked that if the astronauts had a multipurpose weapon, they would have felt much more confident in the wild nature.
The idea of Leonov, who had a great influence, being the first person to go into outer space and deputy head of the Cosmonaut Training Center, quickly received official support.In October 1979, the technical requirements for a survival pistol were ready, and gunsmiths from Tula, on their own initiative, set about developing design solutions to fulfill this task.
Initially, the development was carried out in three areas: a smooth-bore gun, a revolver and a three-barreled pistol. From the idea with a gun refused immediately, because of the large size and weight, it simply did not fit into the trigger apparatus. The revolver with cameras of different caliber also did not like the expert commission. Three-barreled gun was approved and recommended for revision. From that moment on, all the forces of the gunsmiths were directed specifically at him.
General characteristics of the gun
Already in 1982, the pistol TP-82 entered the supply of space missions of the USSR. The task of this gun is to ensure the survival of space crews, as well as crews of long-range aviation, which made an emergency landing outside the controlled area in wild natural conditions. From a constructive point of view, the TP-82 pistol is a non-automatic, three-barreled hunting weapon. The main function of the gun is to protect surviving wild animals and criminals.In addition, such a weapon can be used to obtain food through hunting, as well as to signal a distress signal. The gun has 3 horizontal barrels: two smooth and one rifled.
The Tula Arms Plant was involved in the development and production of the model. Ammunition for a pistol produced Klimovsky Central Research Institute of Precision Engineering. The Soyuz T-6 spacecraft, launched into the space in the summer of 1982, became the first spacecraft to which equipment the survival pistol entered. Four years later, the gun entered service with the Air Force of the Soviet Union. They began to arm the pilots carrying out long-haul flights.
In 1987, the production of the gun stopped. Until 2007, the TP-82 was part of the emergency reserve of Russian spacecraft. By this time, the storage period of ammunition produced during the Soviet era had expired, and the gun was no longer operational, despite the fact that it had quite good characteristics even for modern conditions.
TP-215-82 is an index that is often perceived as a modification of the “space weapon”. In fact, this is the name of the transformer, which has nothing to do with the weapon.
The barrel unit of the gun includes three barrels. The two upper ones are smooth, designed for a hunting cartridge of 32 caliber, the third lower one is threaded, calculated for a cartridge of 5.45 mm caliber. The lower barrel is equipped with an adjustment device consisting of 3 screws. Two of them are located on the sides, and another one - from the bottom. The screws are designed for sighting guns.
The upper smooth stems are equipped with an ordinary extractor, which, when the barrel unit is tilted, moves back due to a pair of pins located on the inner walls of the pad. The cosmonauts TP-82 rifle barrel also has a spring ejector, which is activated by a special button located on the left lower side of the receiver unit.
The reloading of weapons is done by perelamyvaniya barrel unit, just as a similar operation is carried out in the classical hunting rifles. The latch barrel is made in the form of a long lever, which has a horizontal position and is located above the pistol grip on the left. To block the trunks opened, you need to push the lever to the left.
The gun has a non-self-trigger trigger (trigger mechanism), equipped with two open triggers.The right trigger is responsible for the right smooth barrel, and the left one is free to switch between the left smooth and lower rifled trunks. To change the modes of the left trigger on the frame set the appropriate switch.
On some models of the three-barreled gun, an automatic fuse was installed, the governing body of which was carried out in the form of a key placed on the handle under the trigger guard.
Sights and stock
This pistol has an open, fixed sights. To improve shooting accuracy, the weapon was completed with a removable butt, which freely attached to the lower part of the handle. However, the butt could also perform the function of a machete. The sharp trapezoidal blade consisted in a semi-rigid sheath, the lower part of which served as a butt plate.
Under the survival pistol, special cartridges were developed at TsNIITOCHMASH. The process of their creation was led by P.F. Sazanov.
The developed ammunition kit includes three cartridges:
- SP-P. Hunting bullet cartridge 5.45 * 40 mm caliber. Equipped with a semi-expansive bullet with a steel core with a hole in its nose,enhancing stopping effect of a bullet. Previously, the cartridge worked with bullets with a soft lead nose. The cartridge weighs 10.7, and the bullet - 3.6 grams. The initial speed reaches 850 m / s. You can conduct effective shooting from a distance of up to 200 m.
- SP-D. Fractional hunting cartridge with a caliber of 12.5 * 70 mm, the brass sleeve of which has a 32nd hunting caliber. In terms of effectiveness, the projectile is comparable to the cartridge of the 28th hunting caliber. The cartridge is filled with 20 grams of fraction (as a rule, No. 3) in a container or 25 grams without a container. The effective range of such a cartridge is 20 meters. The flight speed of the loose fraction is 310 m / s, and in the container - 350 m / s.
- THX. Signal cartridge of the same caliber as the fractional. Instead of ammunition, a red light block is inserted into the sleeve. The height of its ejection reaches 165 m, and the burning time is 11 s. Under the most favorable conditions (night and direct visibility), the light of the drafts is visible from a distance of 9 km.
The composition of the standard ammunition pistol consisted of 10 fractional and signal, as well as 11 bullet cartridges. All ammunition was placed in a comfortable canvas pouch. Creating cartridges for the TP-82 pistol, the designers implemented a number of measures aimed at preserving the tightness of the cartridges after a long stay in vacuum.
During the tests, the gun showed itself perfectly as a means for hunting. With the help of smooth trunks you can successfully shoot small animals (hare, fox and others), as well as various birds - from partridges to grouse. The rifled trunk allowed to effectively hit wild boars, saigas, mountain goats and other animals weighing up to 200 kilograms. The signal cartridge for the "space gun" has become the most effective projectile in its class.
Definitely with a repeated emergency landing of a spacecraft in the taiga, the crew, armed with survival pistols, would have become almost invulnerable. Removable butt, which can also be used as a machete, coped well with assigned tasks. According to the head cosmonaut Alexander Hermann, during the two-day training trips to the winter forest, the crew of one ship cut down a few cubic meters of vegetation with a machete, which was used to build shelters and maintain a fire.
The Cosmonaut's Pistol made an impression of a reliable and high-quality product. The additional equipment, namely, the holster, the case for the machete and the cartridge belt, had the minimum weight and maximum functionality.
The gun had convenient controls that work simply and logically. When creating weapons, the designers took into account that they would not be used by professional military men. Safety devices made it possible to make the use of weapons as safe as possible. Specialists testing this gun have repeatedly noted its gentle descent, good balance and comfortable handle. Without a butt it is convenient to fire with shot or signal shells. For a more accurate shooting bullets recommended to use the butt.
In 1982, the tri-barrel pistol of the Tula factory first set off into space. They were armed with Soviet cosmonauts who were part of the Soviet-French crew. However, officially adopted weapons only in 1986. The general public first saw the “space gun” at the exhibition “Road to the Stars”, which was dedicated to the 25th anniversary of Gagarin's flight into space.
In the late 1990s, the release of SONAZ TP-82 was discontinued. The official reason for the closure of production was the fact that a sufficient number of pistols of this model were made, and their further production was not advisable.However, according to Tula gunsmiths, the main reason was the lack of funding for the project. According to various sources, during the production of the TP-82 pistol, the description of which comes to an end, between 30 and 100 copies rolled off the conveyor.
Today, anyone can see this model of weapon. To do this, visit the St. Petersburg Artillery Museum, the Tula Arms Museum, or the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow. In addition to the pistol itself, a set of additional equipment for the TP-82 is also presented at the museum expositions. The price of admission to the museums listed above is very democratic.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the gun
Summarizing the above, we consider the main parameters of the weapon:
- The caliber is two trunks by 12.5 mm + one barrel by 5.45 mm.
- The length of the gun - 360 mm.
- The length of the gun with the butt - 670 mm.
- Barrel length - 300 mm.
- The height of the gun - 150 mm.
- The height of the gun with the butt - 235 mm.
- Curb weight - 1.6 kg.
- Weight with butt - 2.4 kg.