To what tectonic structure is the Russian Plain confined? Tectonics and relief of the Russian Plain
The vast forest zone from Pechora and Kareliataiga stretching to the oak groves of the middle belt, which includes steppe cereal granaries and pastures of the tundra, - all this territory is nothing else than the Russian Plain. The map of our country is confirmed by the fact that a large number of cities and towns are located on these lands, and consequently they are most densely populated.
Russian, or Eastern European plain sawmore than a thousand-year history of Russia. It served as a field for liberation battles, through it went the Tatar-Mongols, the troops of Napoleon and Hitler. It was on this plain that grandiose revolutionary events unfolded. Here the basic construction of socialist society was going on. And till now this territory is an important economic part of Russia.
The East European Plain is located on thevast territory. By its area it is second only to the Amazonian. Its lands start from the coast of the Baltic Sea and stretch to the mountain ranges of the Urals, from the White and the Barents Sea to the Caspian and the Azov.
The geographical position of the Russian Plain is such that it has access to two oceans.
In the northwestern part of this territoryis limited to the Scandinavian mountains. In the south-west and west it reaches the ridges of Central Europe and the Carpathians. What other mountains are on the border of the territory occupied by the Russian Plain? The map indicates the Caucasian ridges located in the southeast, the Ural Mountains and the Mogodzhary Mountains in the east. In addition, the territory of the Russian plain ends at the northern foot of the Crimean mountains in the Crimean peninsula. The whole area is four million square meters. It is more than two and a half thousand kilometers from the south to the north and one thousand from the east to the west.
The geographical position of the Russian Plain is such,that its significant territory is within the Russian Federation. In addition, there are such countries as Latvia and Belarus, Estonia and Lithuania, Ukraine and Moldova, Poland and Finland, Bulgaria and Romania, as well as Kazakhstan.
On the territory of the East European Plainthere are elevations, the maximum height of which is from 200 to 300 meters above sea level. There are also lowlands with large rivers flowing on them. The greatest height of the plain is observed in the Urals, as well as in the Bugulminsko-Veremeyevskaya Upland. Here it reaches a mark of 479 m. The average level of altitude throughout the plain is 170 m.
Description and classification of external signsthe relief is occupied by orography. This is one of the sections that includes geography. The Russian plain, according to the features described by orography, is divided into three bands - central, northern and southern. In the first of them on the Russian Plain you can see such elevations: Privolzhskaya, Srednorusskaya, Bugulminsko-Belebeevskaya, as well as Shared Syrt. They are separated from each other by the Low Volga region and the Oka-Don lowland.
The relief of the Russian plain in the northern strip inbasically low base. Only here and there, on this territory, small elevations are scattered one by one or by small garlands. In the direction from west to east and north-east, Smolensk-Moscow, as well as the Valdai heights and the zone of the Northern Uvaly, replace each other here. In their territories, there are watersheds between the Arctic, North, Atlantic, as well as inland inland Aral-Caspian basins. It is noteworthy that from the Northern Uval Mountains to the Barents and White Seas, there is a slight decrease in the territory of the plain.
In the third, southern strip there are numerous lowlands. Among them are the Black Sea, Caspian and other. They are divided by low elevations (Stavropol, Ergeni, etc.).
Classification of tectonic structures
In the earth's crust are large areas,the boundaries of which are deep faults. These are the tectonic structures. They are studied by a separate geological science. Its name is tectonics. This discipline identifies two of the largest structures that are located in the earth's crust. This platform, as well as mobile belts. The first of these are stable areas with a flat surface. The platforms lie in the places of the already destroyed folded structures. In this case they have a two-layer structure. So, in the lower part of the platform there is a crystalline foundation, which consists of ancient hard rocks. Above this layer is a sedimentary cover. Participation in its formation was accepted by later deposits. Tectonics distinguishes on the platform plates and shields. The first of these are those zones where the foundation is completely at depth, covered by a sedimentary cover. The shields are parts of a crystalline basement raised above the ground. There is also a sedimentary cover. However, it is not continuous and low-power.
As for the mobile belt, it is an elongated section in the earth's crust, in the zone of which up to the present time educational processes are continuing.
Based on this classification, which tectonic structure is confined to the Russian Plain? Of course, to the first group, that is, to the platforms.
History of occurrence
The basis of the Russian Plain is ancientplatform. That is why the relief of this region consists mainly of lowlands. Many natural factors have influenced the formation of such a vast territory. It's the wind, the water and the glacier.
The foundation of the East European platformis at different depths. Only between Karelia and the Kola Peninsula, it comes to the surface of the earth. In this zone there is the so-called Baltic Shield. The origin of Khibin, located on the Kola Peninsula, is associated with it. On the rest of the territory, the foundation covers the sedimentary cover, which has different power.
All the elevations that are on the East European Plain are formed either by the deflections of the platform, either under the influence of the glacier, or when raising the foundation.
The influence of tectonic plates on the landscape
The Russian plain has a typical platformrelief. At the same time, all its lowlands and hills are of tectonic origin. What are the features of this platform? To what tectonic structure is the Russian Plain confined?
The entire territory under consideration is dominated byplain relief. And this is all thanks to the tectonic structure that the platform of the plain has. All unevenness of the foundation led to the formation of the largest lowlands and some highlands. For example, the Voronezh uplift of the foundation caused the emergence of the Central Russian Upland. The lowering of the platform led to the appearance of the Pechersk and Caspian lowlands.
Tectonic structure of the Russian Plain onMost of the territory is represented by a plate with a Precambrian crystalline base. The southern zones are located on the northern edge of the Scythian plate, lying on the Paleozoic folded foundation. This structure and gives a more accurate answer to the question of which tectonic structure is confined to the Russian Plain. Moreover, the boundary between these two slabs is not reflected in the terrain relief.
The structure of the tectonic sequence
Despite the fact that the general nature of theThe territory is flat, in its relief there are both lowlands and highlands. An explanation for this can be found in the tectonic features of the Russian Plain. The fact is that its structure has a heterogeneous character and unequal manifestations of modern educational movements. In more detailed consideration, it turns out that the platform underlying the Russian Plain consists of smaller elements. They are:
- Anteclases, which are zones of shallow bedding of the foundation;
- syneclises, which are those regions, the Gley pre-Cambrian foundation is at great depth.
The largest of these elementsare located in the central part of the Russian plate. This is the Volga-Urals and Voronezh anteclises. In the first of them there are major uplifts (vaults) and hollows. At the same time, the thickness of the sedimentary cover is about 800 meters.
The territory of Voronezh anteclise smoothlyfalls in the direction to the north. On the surface of its basement are thin in thickness deposits of the Carboniferous, Devonian and Ordovician. On a steeper southern slope there are rocks of Paleogene and Cretaceous. Is located here and carbon.
The most ancient and complex in compositionthe element is the Moscow zone. Here the crystalline basement lies in the earth's crust at great depth. At the heart of the Moscow syneclise are avlakogeny, the filling of which are the powerful strata of the Riphean. Above these layers is a sedimentary cover, represented by various rocks from the Cambrian to the Cretaceous.
In the Neogene-Quaternary period, the Moscow syneclisehas undergone an uneven uplift. This affected the terrain, where such elevations as Valdai and Smolensk-Moscow, as well as lowlands - North-Dvinskaya and Verkhnevolzhskaya appeared.
On the East European Plain is stillone large syneclise is Pechora. It occupies a wedge-like territory in the northeastern part of the Russian plate. Its block uneven foundation is located at different depths, reaching in the eastern area from 5000 to 6000 meters. The filling of this syneclise is provided by thick strata of Paleozoic rocks, which are overlapped by Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits.
So, we decided on whattectonic structure is confined to the Russian Plain, what is its geological history. Due to the long period of its formation, this ancient platform represents a powerful geostructure. In it there are inexhaustible stocks of minerals. Thus, iron ore deposits are found in the basement of the platform. They are in the zone of the Kursk magnetic anomaly. Deposits of coal were found in the sedimentary cover of the platform. They are being developed in the eastern part of Donbass and in the Moscow region basin. The Mesozoic and Paleozoic deposits contain gas and oil reserves. This is the Ural-Volga basin. Not far from Syzran, oil shale was discovered. In the depths of the Russian Plain are many different building materials - limestone and gravel, clay, etc. In the sedimentary cover, brown limestones, bauxites, salts and phosphorites are found.
Variety of natural areas
As we already know, the Russian plain is locatedon a vast territory. That is why it is characterized by a pronounced variety of climate. The natural areas of the Russian Plain are represented in all their diversity. In the regions of the Far North - the tundra with its low-power and poor vegetation, growing on humus-peaty soils. Summer in these parts is cold, with high humidity of air, increasing in connection with the proximity of the Arctic Ocean.
Slightly south of this area is the zoneforest-tundra. Next is the middle belt of the Russian Plain. It is covered with forests. In its northern part, dark coniferous taiga predominates, growing on boggy podzolic soils. In the direction to the south appear mixed massifs, followed by broad-leaved forests of oak, maple and linden.
The natural areas of the Russian Plain in the southern part are represented by forest-steppes and steppes. These are areas with fertile, as a rule, chernozem soils that have grassy vegetation.
The extreme southeast of the East European Plainis located in the Caspian lowland. Under the influence of dry climate, a semi-desert zone formed on chestnut soils. In some places, there are also deserts. These are zones of serozems, solonetzes and solonchaks.
How can more fully and in detail bestudied the Russian plain? The table, in which various indicators (tectonic structure, natural zones, climate, etc.) are introduced, should be carefully considered. This is a remarkable visual aid, which can provide invaluable assistance in understanding and studying the necessary material.