The Supreme Administrative Commission, Loris-Melikov. Composition and year of creation
Creation of the Supreme Administrative Commissionbecame an important event in the political history of Russia. The fact of the existence of this body testifies to the attempt of the tsarist regime of the late 19th century to cope with public sentiments, based on the expectation of constructive consistent reforms.
What is this commission
In 1880, the forces of the tsarist regimeestablishment of the Supreme Administrative Commission. This year was marked by the active struggle of the autocratic power against the revolutionary movement. Among historians there is an opinion that the reason for the creation of the Commission was an explosion organized by the opponents of tsarism on February 5 in the Winter Palace.
A person in whose direct subordinationwas the Supreme Dispatch Commission - Loris-Melikov Mikhail Tarielovich. The body also included KP Pobedonostsev, AK Imeretinsky, MS Kakhanov and other prominent statesmen. The creation of the Supreme Administrative Commission, according to some historians, was associated with the need to streamline the actions of law enforcement agencies in the capital of the Russian Empire in the face of growing revolutionary sentiments.
The Supreme Administrative Commission was called upon toto unite the work of various state bodies of law and order (including judicial instances). The main goal of the commission's work was to counteract the growing activity of the revolutionaries. The tasks that the organization faced were to accelerate investigative actions against suspects in crimes against the state, address issues of punishment in the form of exile, and management of police supervisory bodies.
Among historians there is a version that Loris-Melikovrather actively interfered in the work of most of the directions of state policy, but that was supported by support in the royal environment. Therefore, the establishment of the supreme administrative commission could be assessed as a mere formality - the key decisions were made, one way or another, within the framework of the tsarist line. Therefore, according to historians, it was not surprising that the establishment of the Supreme Administrative Commission soon resulted in its abolition. Loris-Melikov headed the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the country.
Prerequisites for appearance
In popular historiographical sourcesthere is a version that the reforms carried out by the tsarist regime in the 60-70s of the 19th century had signs of inconsistency, despite the fact that they contained a number of progressive signs: the development of capitalist elements and the accompanying economic growth, strengthening the country's positions in the international arena.
The Supreme Administrative Commission, considerhistorians, appeared as a response of the tsarist regime to crisis trends in the field of political processes - began to appear organizations seeking to correct the shortcomings in governing the country by revolutionary methods. In addition, a significant part of Russian society did not have a strong political position, and there was a risk that radical cells would gain sympathy in the eyes of citizens.
The personality of Loris-Melikov
Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-Melikov was born in 1824year in Tiflis. His family has Armenian roots. He studied at the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages. Then - in the military schools of St. Petersburg. In 1843-47 he served in the hussar regiment in Grodno. Then he fought for several years in the Caucasus, after taking part in the Crimean War and the subsequent major military conflicts between Russia and Turkey. After the conclusion of peace between the powers, he was appointed provisional governor-general of Astrakhan, Saratov and Samara, successfully solved the tasks of countering dangerous epidemics in the region. He worked as a governor-general in Kharkov, where he took part in the reform of the state apparatus. Then he headed a new government agency called the Supreme Administrative Commission (year 1880).
Loris-Melikov on the situation in the country
In his memoirs about the conditionsthe High Control Commission functioned, Loris-Melikov stressed that the primary task was to reassure the citizens of the country. And only then carry out reforms. The actor wrote that the Russian Tsar was under pressure from various sides. First, from the foreign policy arena - the great powers forced the emperor to change the San Stefan peace treaty signed with the Ottoman Empire on conditions unfavorable to Russia. Secondly, the Russian intelligentsia required consistency in the reforms: after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, it was necessary to adapt the liberated peasants to the new conditions of farming. And this despite the fact that the conservative moods of the progressive public did not subside, believing that the reform of 1861 was not compatible with Russian reality.
Draft Constitution of Loris-Melikov
In January 1881, Loris-Melikov proposedEmperor Alexander II, for consideration, a document containing the basic principles of the transformation of the country's governance, which, in the opinion of the figure, were adequate to the socio-political situation. Historians called this document "The Constitution of Loris-Melikov." It contained a proposal to establish a commission to draft laws on financial matters, management in the regions and the formation of a legislative function. The composition of these bodies should include deputies elected in provincial zemstvos and city dumas.
The main task of transformations was tocreation of the institution of people's representation, the prototype of the parliament. The Emperor did not object to the idea. But on the day when Alexander II signed the draft appeal to the government on the issue of transformation, the terrorists of Narodnaya Volya committed an attempt on the tsar. The emperor did not manage to survive.
The main structure, which, according to manyhistorians, represented the greatest threat to the tsarist regime, was the "Narodnaya Volya." This organization was a conspiratorial structure, but at the same time found channels for inclusion in political processes. Its program provisions included the seizure of power by the method of revolutionary insurrection and the subsequent conduct of democratic reforms. Narodovoltsy believed that terrorist attacks were the most effective method of countering the regime.
In February 1880, they organized an explosion inThe Winter Palace, which led to the need for a structure such as the Supreme Administrative Commission. The year of the creation of this body, according to a number of experts, was characterized by the highest social tension in Russia.
The history of law enforcement agencies in Russia
Despite the fact that the time when it happenedthe establishment of the Supreme Administrative Commission - the year of especially active radical activity, which, according to many historians, did not have such pronounced manifestations in several previous decades, such a body had historical prototypes. In particular, in the middle of the 17th century the so-called Secret Affairs Order was created by the tsar, designed to monitor the work of key state institutions and conduct investigations related to the work of politicians. Under Peter the First, the Transfiguration Order was established. The body carried out the task of investigating the precedents of insulting the personality of the Emperor, subversive work, misconduct in the Guards. At the beginning of the 18th century a new body was formed - the Office of Investigative Affairs, and a few decades later - the Secret Expedition, designed to investigate cases of violation of state order. In the following decades, the Interior Ministry of the Empire acquired different names. At the end of the 19th century, when a need arose in the country to oppose radical groups, the Supreme Administrative Commission appeared.
Historical heritage of the Commission
There is a version among historians thatThe Supreme Administrative Commission became the body that had a direct impact on the formation of the Soviet and, later, the modern system of state institutions of law and order. In some historiographical data, there are reports that the counterrevolutionary bodies of Soviet power, created in 1917, in their functions were very similar to the Supreme Administrative Commission. Then, the NKVD was created, and structures such as the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and the KGB appeared.
In 1991, bodies were established,localized the work of Soviet structures in the RSFSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Interior Ministry and the FSB appeared. Thus, there is reason to say how great is the historical role of such an organ as the Supreme Administrative Commission: the 1917th - the revolutionary one - was the period when the state tested a new format for resisting protest moods, and on the basis of this experience, the Soviet and, later, law and order.
Evaluation of Historians
Among Russian scientists there are experts,assessing the historical role of the supreme administrative commission in the context of modern political processes. In particular, there is a version that the authorities under the tsar and the ruling elites of today's Russia admit common mistakes. For example, the emergence of terrorist organizations, believe the proponents of this hypothesis, and now and then was due to the tyranny of elites, the lack of their desire to carry out the necessary reforms, and by peaceful methods. If somehow counteract terrorism, experts believe, the emphasis should be made on the ideological factor, on adjusting the principles of economic development, in which opposition and subversive cells in society will not have the opportunity to influence the population that has, for example, a stable and high paying job.
Important, emphasize historians, quality workspecial services not just in the "emergency" mode - when terrorists are activated, but constantly. In these areas, experts believe, the Government of Tsarist Russia was mistaken, and the state bodies of the Russian Federation are performing an insufficiently precise work.