The structure of philosophical knowledge and its importance in the study of this discipline
Some young people consider philosophy boringand a monotonous object, which is studied with great difficulty. In fact, this is completely wrong, just sometimes people can not understand this subject because of the complexity of the perception of certain metaphysical concepts. If you correctly disclose those or other aspects, the structure of philosophical knowledge becomes clear to almost everyone who is interested in it.
So, in the first centuries of its existencephilosophy did not have a clear and coherent structure, since it included the most diverse spheres of human activity. The first who decided to systematize and decompose all available names on shelves, was the famous ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. His teaching about the beginnings of all things he called "primary philosophy", dividing all existing at that time knowledge into physics, ethics and logic. The same structure was followed and all emerging after him, the philosophical currents up to the era of modern times.
Today, the general structure of philosophical knowledge includes the following aspects:
- Actually a philosophy that studies the categories and laws of thinking, as well as the notion of being.
- Logic, which is a doctrine of the right reasoning, as well as the search for evidence.
- Aesthetics, studying the sensual world, beautiful and ugly, harmonious and inharmonious.
- The ethics underlying the theory of morality and correct human behavior, the concept of good and evil, as well as the meaning of human life.
However, in our country, philosophy has always had its owncharacteristic features, where the emphasis was most often placed on the correctness of the chosen life path, honesty, decency, and the ability to self-sacrifice themselves for the sake of all mankind. That is why the structure of the philosophical knowledge of Russian schools is divided into the following aspects: the theory of knowledge and ontology, aesthetics, the history of philosophy, logic, ethics, social philosophy, anthropology, the philosophy of science and technology, religious and cultural philosophy.
As can be understood from all of the above,philosophy as a whole is a very voluminous sphere of human knowledge, which affects many parallel scientific disciplines. It can be said that this discipline includes all the most important human thoughts that were expressed by sages who lived on our land and were interested in higher knowledge. That is why in philosophy it is necessary to allocate also its specialized functions, that is, what is the realization of its cognitive activity
The structure and function of philosophical knowledge includes the following:
- Methodological function - develops basic methods of understanding the reality surrounding us.
- World outlook function - contributes to the formation of an integral picture of the world, the idea of its structure, the place of man in it, and also the interaction of man with the surrounding world.
- Gnoseological function - provides verification of the reliability of both existing and new knowledge, as well as a correct knowledge of the surrounding reality.
- Critical function - replenishes knowledge with important criticisms, and also questions the existing idea of the world.
- The thought-theoretical function is expressed in the ability to conceptually think and ultimately generalize the surrounding reality.
In addition to all of the above, the structurephilosophical knowledge includes educational, humanitarian and prognostic functions, thanks to which the young generation of children develops the ability to behave correctly in society and make predictions for the future. In general, the ability to correctly analyze the near-term perspective is very useful, since it allows a person to prepare in advance for certain events that will occur in the near future.
Summing up the whole concept of this subject,it should be noted that the subject and structure of philosophical knowledge is extremely important in obtaining higher education, since they give a general idea of the most important aspects of the human soul and spirit. And in our time of the primacy of material values, it is very important not to miss important knowledge about the wisdom of life, which brought to us the great world thinkers.