The population census is ... The first population census
Why is the census so valuable? In our world there are a lot of problems related to human activity, is it not so important to understand, and how many people live on planet Earth? In the Russian territory, the census began relatively recently - at the end of the 19th century, but its results show a tendency to increase or outflow of inhabitants to other countries, to find out the percentage ratio between mortality and birth rate, as well as to make analytical data on other important state factors. .
What is a census?
A population census is the collection, analysis, and processing of demographic, social, and economic information about each person currently living in a particular country. This information is a collection of data to be published. Thus, population statistics are compiled.
How is the census done?
Any census is carried out according to a specific program. Such a program includes the characteristics of the people surveyed, whether it is an individual or a family. To determine and clarify such characteristics, there are special forms - lists.
Each sheet contains specific questions that allow you to get the most accurate information about the individual. For example, an official who has the authority for such actions must obtain information on the exact age, gender, address and residence permit, marital status, citizenship, ethnicity, that is, to what ethnicity a person belongs, what language he prefers to communicate, his religion, information about education, as well as information about the type of activity, number of children, information about moving to other countries and much more. Such scrupulous work allows you to collect as many nuances as possible to determine the demographic factors in a certain time period.
What can be a census?
Typically, a population census is a timed project, that is, a certain length of time, one for the entire state.Date is set by the government. At this point in time, all information and census statistics are usually customized, most often it is midnight before the first day of the census. This critical line allows to take into account the exact number of the population of the country, eliminate possible repetitions or omissions. Those born after 12 o'clock at night are not taken into account for this census. And those who died are recorded in the list, and for them it will already be the last census of the population, since they were still alive until 12 at night.
There is such a thing as an urgent census. It is used when it is necessary to collect information on demographic factors within a limited period of time, using only five basic questions for real-time data transfer.
What is a demographic survey?
Instead of a general population census, a country can organize data collection on a certain part of the population. It is necessary to study the composition of a particular territory, to determine social processes and to learn public opinion. Such a survey is a collection of very detailed information, which at the All-Russian population census would only slow down the process.
The microcensus is somewhat similar to a survey, since during it a study of a part of the population as representatives of the whole country is carried out. A feature is the selection of territories and sites to identify certain information. In this case, all residents living in the area are interviewed. A large amount of budget funds is not allocated for the microcensus, there are no difficulties in the organization, and the research program itself is quite detailed. The last census of the population in this perspective was conducted in 1994, with a sample of five percent of the total population of Russia.
In order for the work to be carried out qualitatively and to justify the venture, the All-Russian Population Census implies the observance of certain principles:
- It should be universal, that is, to cover absolutely the entire territory of the Russian Federation and its population.
- The census should be carried out simultaneously. This refers to the use of the critical moment described above.
- The program must be unified, that is, the data expressed in the questionnaires must be taken from each individual.
- All questionnaires must be named.
- Absolutely all information must be recorded from the words of the person being interviewed, without the requirement to provide additional official documents for confirmation, this is called self-determination in our country.
- Full privacy. Interviewers are prohibited from transmitting any information about the people interviewed to third parties, except for the relevant data collection authority.
- The entire program must be centralized.
- Responsibility and funding lie with the state.
- The principle of regularity. According to the law of the Russian Federation, the census should be held at least once a decade; the same recommendations come from the UN.
What categories of people are counted
The population census is not only a collection of statistical data, but also an account of the different categories of the population living in the territory of our homeland. The census program includes three such categories: resident population, legal and cash. These categories have different census criteria, but they are the same for the whole territory of Russia. Let's see what each of them means.
When censuses or surveys usually take into account one or two categories, most often this is the first and third.Thus, the accuracy of the information increases.
If the program takes into account two types, then at the time of the survey are taken into account living at the moment and absent, but registered in the given living space individuals. As a result, the population census is the process of registering people in Russia or in territories that are subject to a census, excluding those who temporarily left, but with a record of temporary arrivals, permanently residing (from six months) and enforced by legal force in any territory of Russia . In the latter case, the person does not need to submit documents on the formalization of the place of residence.
Ways to collect information
How is information collected? First of all, it is worth noting the questionnaire method, that is, the interviewer (copyist) fills in all the data himself, at the same time talking to the person who is rewriting. In Russia and the USSR, this method is used.
The second option is self-counting, that is, the people who are being rewritten must fill in the questionnaire themselves, and the registrar only checks the accuracy of the filling and asks additional questions if it finds the missing lines.Thus keep statistics of the population in Europe.
And the third method is a questionnaire, mixed, when special questionnaires are sent by mail, the census takers fill them in and send them to the specified address to the information collection office (statistical office). Those who failed to provide information on the questionnaires on time are interviewed personally by the registrars. This method is not very successful, since according to the clarified data, the percentage of completed forms sent is up to fifteen percent. Plus, it is more costly, as for more involvement, there is active advertising propaganda, which is also covered by certain budget expenditures. This method is common in the United States.
Program according to which the census is conducted in the Russian Federation
In the Russian program, first of all, there is a record of the place of residence and registration, followed by lines with personal data on age, an indication of the person’s gender, his status: married / married, divorced / widowed. It is necessary to mention the education, profession, occupation, sources from which a person receives his cash income, his social position in society.Next, a register is filled in on ethnic information: the actual affiliation, which language is native, knowledge of additional languages, to which religious denomination, religion a person identifies himself. There are questions about the presence of children, if not, the relevant information and questions about migration steps are clarified. The questionnaire is optionally supplemented with other topics.
If you look through the centuries, then according to ancient historical essays we will see that the population was counted due to the development of the tax and military systems, as well as to solve problems related to the administrative work of the state. For example, the ancient Indian Vedic knowledge transmits to the world the laws of Manu, which suggested a census of residents to determine the correct taxation and calculate the strength of the state.
In the 2900s BC, the Egyptian authorities already counted their inhabitants. Ancient China, Japan and Mesopotamia also had their accounts. The goal was the same - to find out their power and military capabilities. Before the arrival of the Europeans on the American shores, local states were engaged in a census of the indigenous population.There are reliable facts about the registration of the entire adult male population in the ancient Greek kingdom in the fourth century BC. The same was done in ancient Rome, and from the 400s BC, such a census became a regular practice.
In the early medieval period, censuses were created for the treasury. And in the 11th century, the famous "Last Judgment Book" appeared, created after the order of the English ruler William the Conqueror to count the entire population of thirty-four counties. In the 15th and 16th centuries, households were counted in Zurich, Strasbourg, and Florence. In the full format, the first census of the population in the modern world was held by the Americans in the USA in 1790.
Russian census: years and number of people copied
The first census of the population on the territory of Tsarist Russia was held in 1897, then 67,475,000 people were counted. The following reference days were held in 1914 and 1917 - the number of the population was 89,900,000 and 91,000,000, respectively. In the Leninist period, the census was conducted in 1926 - 92,700,000 people, and in the Stalinist period right before the Second World War - 108,380,000 people.
In the postwar years, the people were first recalculated in 1959 - the figure showed 117,535,000. The difference in the quantitative composition of the country between the 1970 and 1979 censuses was 7 million people (130,000,000 and 137,550,000, respectively). In 1989, the still existing Soviet Union consisted of 147,385,000 inhabitants.
And 1991 and 1996 showed a new country, the Russian Federation, with a population of 148,540,000 and 148,300,000 inhabitants. After the advent of the new era in 2002, 145,165,000 people were registered. The last census of the Russian Federation was carried out in 2010 between the 14th and 25th of October. A few months later, after counting the data, an unexpected figure was announced - 142 905 200, so Russia dropped one step lower in the global standings (from seventh to eighth place).
Why take into account data on the nationality of a person and his source of income?
Since we live in a multinational country consisting of multiple constituent entities of the Federation, including republics, then from a historical point of view, knowledge of the national minorities inhabiting will be very useful. This will make it easy to analyze the process of interaction between different representatives of ethnic groups, as well as to follow their preferences for resettlement, to study more precisely their culture, and so on.Therefore, the questionnaire has a question about ethnicity.
It so happened that for residents of Russia, money issues are usually perceived more painfully, but this does not mean that the state collects information about specific sources of income; statisticians need to study and compare information about livelihoods, and these are two contiguous but different points. If to put it differently, then the interviewee indicates the main place of work, and not the channel used to receive a remuneration for work performed. For example, the amount of salary and salary received is the source of livelihood, but winning the lottery is considered a source of income.
The main experiences of residents during the transfer of personal data
Often there are questions about the feelings of residents about the transfer of information to the tax authorities. In fact, that the tax, that other departments use the collected data only in summary form, that is, do not study the history of a particular person. Absolutely all the information in the questionnaires is confidential and cannot be disclosed with the mention of the name, surname or telephone number.
In the event that information leaks outside the office for the compilation of statistical data, these persons will be fully responsible under the laws of the Russian Federation. By the way, the important fact is that the respondent does not bear any responsibility for providing false data, except to his own conscience.