The oral cavity and its functions

The oral cavity is the first section of the human digestive system, where mechanical and chemical processing of food begins. It is limited to the inner parts of the cheeks, lips, sky and the base of the tongue.

The human mouth is divided into two parts. The first is the threshold of the oral cavity, which is limited by teeth and gums on the back, and lips from the front. The second is the oral cavity itself, consisting of cheeks, tongue, salivary glands and palate.

Functions of the oral cavity in the human body

The function of respiration of the oral cavity is quite insignificant,because in the human body for this task is provided for the nose. But nevertheless through it comes out and enters the air in those cases when it is required to saturate the lungs with oxygen. For example, if the nasal congestion is caused by a cold or trauma or when there is a lot of physical stress. Oral cavity is directly related to speech formation. The tongue and teeth articulate the sounds that reproduce the vocal cords.

Protective function

Due to the impermeability of the oral mucosa, many pathogenic bacteria and viruses are delayed, which can harm not only the health of the oral cavity, but also the entire body.

Sensitive function

The mucous membrane of the oral cavity has a largethe number of heat, pain, flavors and sensory receptors that tell a person about the possibility of unpleasant consequences that can occur when eating. That's why when we hit something hot or bitter in the mouth, we automatically try to spit it out.

Suction function

Mucous mouth is able to suck protein and mineral compounds, which are very necessary for the human body. Also here is the initial absorption of certain drugs.

And of course the most important function of the human oral cavity -digestive.She is responsible for food intake and preparation forfurther ingestion in the human gastrointestinal tract. The essence is reduced to the process of grinding and enveloping the products with saliva, after which a lump is formed, which subsequently passes to the next link of the digestive system. The main participant in this whole process is saliva. It is produced by three pairs of large glands and many small ones. The process of digestion in the oral cavity is determined by the presence in the saliva of proteins, various salts and water, which directly affect the softening and preparation of food for its further promotion. Apparently, the oral cavity is of great importance for the health of the entire digestive system of man. Therefore, any disease of the oral cavity can have a negative effect on the entire body.

According to various sources, the human mouth lives from 160up to 300 species of various bacteria, which is much more than in the rest of the digestive tract. This can be explained by the fact that the majority of microorganisms entering the mouth with water, air and food live a certain amount of time. This is the so-called constant of the microflora of the oral cavity, in which the cells of the mucosa constantly revive. If this update fails, saliva can no longer kill the main number of bacteria by itself. In this case, there is inflammation of the oral cavity - stomatitis.

Depending on what kind of microorganism caused this disease, it is divided into fungal, infectious and herpetic.

The cause of inflammation of the oral cavity can be eitherelementary non-compliance with the rules of personal oral hygiene, and the negative impact of many drugs (antibiotics, corticosteroids). Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the effect of the allergen can also cause stomatitis.

Redness, burning, pain, blistering andulcers, difficulty swallowing, plaque - it's all the symptoms that indicate the occurrence of inflammation of the mouth. Treatment of stomatitis depends on the cause of its appearance. If the causative agent of the disease is a virus, then antiviral drugs are used, if the bacteria - antibiotics. Stomatitis caused by a mechanical trauma of the mucosa is treated by ridding the damaging factor, for example, a tooth fragment. In this case, the oral cavity is treated with antiseptic solutions.

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