The main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics. Themes and motives of Pushkin's lyrics

Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin - the world-famouspoet, prose writer, publicist, playwright and literary critic - went down in history not only as the author of unforgettable works, but also as the founder of the new literary Russian language. At one mention of Pushkin immediately there is an image of the native Russian national poet. The poet Pushkin is a universally recognized genius, the vocabulary of his works is unique, the imagery of his lyrics is wide and absolutely unique, the depth of the sensual and philosophical component of his poems amazes and worries the readers of all countries and all generations. But nevertheless, Pushkin's lyrics deserve special attention, the versatility and imagery of which has not yet been fully explored.

The poet Pushkin

Coloring Pushkin's lyrics

Pushkin's lyrics are his poetic biography andIn parallel with this, a creative chronicle of the everyday and spiritual life of those distant times. The war of 1812 and the Decembrist insurrection of 1825, serfdom and dreams of "holy liberty", loved ones, friends and enemies, "wonderful moments" of life and sadness and "the sadness of the past" - all these moments found written reflection in Pushkin's poems , letters, elegies, poetic fairy tales, songs, epigrams. And all these themes and motifs of Pushkin's lyrics are so harmoniously combined by the author that there is not the slightest tension or dissonance in the course of reading his works. This indescribable inner unity of the Pushkin lyric poetry was defined very accurately and accurately by V. Belinsky: "The whole color of the lyric and any other poetry of Pushkin is the inner human beauty and humanity that warms the soul."

The main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics

Love lyrics of Pushkin

Pushkin's love lyrics are rightly called"An encyclopedia of love experiences." It contains a wide range of feelings: from the beautiful and fascinating moment of the first quivering rendezvous to the complete disappointment and loneliness of the devastated soul passions. Love in Pushkin's lyrics is very different. This is the ideal feeling that elevates the soul of any person, and just an accidental hobby that suddenly arises, but also passes quickly, and a burning passion accompanied by outbursts of jealousy and resentment. The main motives of Pushkin's lyric poetry are easy love, an adult and sensible feeling, passion, jealousy and pain, resentment and disappointment.

Motive of recollection in Pushkin's lyrics

The poem "I remember a wonderful moment ..."

Pushkin's famous poem "I remembera wonderful moment ... "the author wrote during the period of exile in Mikhailovskoye. These words are addressed to Anna Petrovna Kern. Pushkin first saw her in Petersburg in 1819 and was carried away by it. Six years later he met her again with neighbors, landlords of the village of Trigorskoye, where Anna came to visit her aunt. The love feeling in the poet's soul flared up with renewed vigor. Before the departure of Anna from Trigorskoy Pushkin gave her a folded four-fold piece of mail paper. Unfolding it, Anna saw poetic lines that would later become a masterpiece of Russian lyrics and forever glorify her name.

Compositional structure of the poem

The lyrical theme reflects the basic biographicalthe landmarks of Pushkin's and Kern's relations, the main one here is the motive of memories in Pushkin's lyrics. Compositional poem breaks up into three separate parts of its semantic component. Each of them, in turn, consists of two quatrains - the same size quatrains. In the first part, the lyrical hero remembers a "wonderful moment" when he saw the beauty and fell in love with her forever. The second describes the years of separation - time "without deity and without fury." In the third - a new meeting of lovers, a new outbreak of feelings, in which "and the deity, and inspiration, and life, and tears, and love." For the lyrical hero of the poem, love is like a true miracle, a divine revelation. That's how the poet himself felt at that time, it was this feeling that lived in him then, and he lived them without looking back.

Themes and motives of Pushkin's lyrics

The poem "I loved you ..."

Another famous poem "I am youloved ... "Pushkin wrote in 1829, along with another of his masterpiece -" What's in your name for me? .. ". Initially, the work was inscribed in the album of Caroline Sobanska, in which the poet long and hopelessly was in love. A distinctive feature of the verse "I loved you ..." is that the lyrical feeling in it is transmitted extremely little, but surprisingly aphoristic and expressive. In the poem there are almost no metaphors, hidden images, polysyllabic, cutting ear epithets, which usually the poets of those times portrayed their feelings for the beloved. However, the image of love that appears before the reader from the lines of the poem is full of magical poetry and charm, unusual light sadness. The culmination of the work, reflecting the main motifs of Pushkin's lyric poetry in love, are the two final lines. In them, the poet does not just say that he "loved so sincerely, so tenderly," but he also wants the object of his past adoration of happiness with the new elect with the words "how to give you God's beloved to be different."

Philosophical motives

Landscape Pushkin lyrics

Nature has always been an inexhaustible sourceinspiration for Pushkin. In his poems are reflected numerous images of paintings of nature and elements, different seasons, of which the poet was most fond of autumn. Pushkin proved himself a true master of the landscape detail, a singer of Russian landscapes, picturesque corners of the Crimea and the Caucasus. The main themes, motives of Pushkin's lyrics are always, one way or another, "tied" with the surrounding nature. It is thought of by the poet as an independent aesthetic value, which is admirable, but the vast majority of Pushkin's landscape poems are constructed in the form of a comparison of pictures of nature and situations of human life. Natural images often serve as a contrast or, conversely, a consonant accompaniment to the thoughts and actions of the lyric hero. Like a living literary background, there are pictures of nature in the lyrics of the poet. She acts as a poetic symbol of his dreams, aspirations, spiritual values ​​defended by him.

The freedom-loving motifs in Pushkin's lyrics

The poem "To the Sea"

This poem Pushkin began to write in 1824in Odessa, already knowing about his new exile in Mikhailovskoe, where he later completed the work on the poem. The main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics, which have a natural orientation, always go in parallel - the natural phenomena and feelings and experiences of the poet himself. In the poem "To the Sea" farewell to the sea dalam becomes the basis for the lyrical reflections of the poet about the tragedy of human destiny, about the fateful force that historical circumstances have over it. The sea, its free element for the poet is a symbol of freedom, causes associations with figures of two personalities who were rulers of doom and personification of human power. This very power of the circumstances of a vital life is as strong and free as the sea element. This is Napoleon and Byron, with whom Pushkin compares himself. This motif of memories in Pushkin's lyrics, where he addresses the departed genius, is inherent in many of his poems. Geniuses are no more, and the fate of the poet continues in all its tragedy.

Tyranny and education - a contradiction in the poem

In the poem, in addition to natural motifs, the poetbrings together two concepts: tyranny and education. Like other romantics of the time, Pushkin implies in his work that civilization, introducing a new education system, simultaneously spoils the naturalness and sincerity of simple human relations governed by the dictates of the heart. Saying goodbye to the free and powerful marine elements, Pushkin, as it were, says goodbye to the romantic period of his work, which is replaced by a realistic worldview. The freedom-loving motifs in Pushkin's lyrics are increasingly flickering in his later works. And even if at first it seems that the central core of the poem is the landscape, the description of natural phenomena, one should seek a hidden meaning connected with the poet's desire to free his craving for freedom, spread the wings of his inspiration to the fullest, without fearing and not looking back at the strict censorship of those rebellious times.

Pushkin's philosophical lyrics

Pushkin's philosophical lyrics contain in themselvesthe poet's understanding of imperishable human existence: the meaning of life, death and eternity, good and evil, nature and civilization, man and society, society and history. An important place in it belongs to the themes of friendship (especially in verses dedicated to the lyceum comrades), devotion to the ideals of good and justice (in letters to former Lyceum students and friends, the Decembrists), sincerity and purity of moral relations (in verse-reflections on the meaning of life, about relatives and people close to the poet). Philosophical motifs accompany the poet's lyrics more often, the older he becomes. The most profound in philosophical terms are Pushkin's last poems, written shortly before his death. Like a poet, anticipating his departure, he was afraid to give up, to thinklessly and not to feel, he wanted to give the descendants everything without rest.

Pushkin's Civil Lyrics

Civil themes in Pushkin's lyricsis revealed through the motives of love for the motherland, through a sense of national pride for its historical past, through a resolute protest against the autocracy and serfdom, which threatens the primordial freedom of man as a person. The main motives of Pushkin's lyricism are the themes of freedom and inner human power. Freedom is not only political, it consists in serving the high social ideals based on the principles of equality and justice, but also the inner freedom of every person that no one can take away. The main component of the verses of the civil subject is the condemnation of tyranny and any forms of enslavement of the person, the chanting of freedom of the internal, personal, which manifests itself in a clear and principled moral position, a sense of dignity and unsullied conscience.

The theme of the poet and poetry

Along with civil, religiousmotifs in Pushkin's lyrics. In moments of doubt and internal spiritual discord, the poet resorted to such images. It was the Christian component, as if even closer, to the worldview of the people. A peculiar synthesis of the lyrics of philosophical and civic sounding are poems dedicated to the theme of the poet and poetry. What is the purpose of the poet and the meaning of the lyrics themselves-these are the two main questions that trigger Pushkin's reflections on the problems of the place and role of the poet in society, the freedom of poetic creativity, his relationship with the authorities and his own conscience. The top of Pushkin's lyrics, dedicated to the theme of the poet and poetry, was the poem "I erected a monument to myself not made by hands ...". The work was written in 1836 and during the life of Pushkin was not printed. Subjects and individual plot motifs of the Pushkin poem originate from the famous ode of the ancient Roman poet Horace "To Melpomene." From there Pushkin took the epigraph to his work: "Exegi monumentum" ("I erected a monument").

The main themes of the motifs of Pushkin's lyrics

Message to future generations

The main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics of those times -a message to the representatives of future generations. In its content, the poem "I erected a monument to myself not made by hands ..." is a kind of poetic testament that contains a self-esteem of the poet's creativity, his merits before society and descendants. The meaning that his poetry will have for future generations, Pushkin symbolically relates to the monument that ascended above the "Alexandrian Pillar". The Alexandrian Pillar is a monument to the ancient Roman commander Pompey in Egyptian Alexandria, but for the then reader he was previously associated with the monument to the Emperor Alexander, erected in St. Petersburg in the form of a high pillar.

Classification of the main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics

Very clearly shows the main motifs of Pushkin's lyrics, the table below:

Genres of lyrics

Motive

Philosophy

The motif of freedom - both internal and civil

Human relationships

The motive of love and friendship, devotion and the strength of earthly human bonds

Relation to nature

The motif of intimacy with nature, its juxtaposition with man and his inner world

Religion

The motif is religious, especially close to the reader of those times

Poetry

The motif is deeply philosophical, giving an answer to the question of the place of the poet and poetry in the world of literature as a whole

This is only a general description of the main topicsworks of the great poet. The table can not contain all the motifs of Pushkin's lyrics, the poetry of genius is so versatile and comprehensive. Many literary critics admit that for everyone Pushkin is different, each opens up new and new facets of his work for himself. The poet counted on this, saying in his notes about the desire to awaken the reader a storm of emotions, to make him think, compare, experience and, most importantly, feel.

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