The history of blood transfusion. Blood transfusion station. Honorary donor
To date, it is difficult to imagine medicinewithout blood transfusion. More recently, transfusion was required only when a person needed to compensate for a large loss, but for now, blood transfusion can cope with many serious diseases. For example, many have already come across the term "autohemotherapy", despite the fact that it is more related to non-traditional medicine, it is through this method that thousands of lives have been saved. This is also a blood transfusion, which helps the body maintain immunity and fight the disease.
History of the development of blood transfusion in medicine
The history of blood transfusion and donation go awayfar into the past. Transfusion was known for a long time as a special technology in medicine, which helps to save a patient's life by administering to the patient all components from the donor's body. Transfusion can be subject to blood plasma, red blood cells and other substances that are absent or small in the patient's body. Of course, the technology of modern society is described above, the fact is that in the old days this was not, because there was no special equipment with which it would be possible to separate plasma from red blood cells.
The first blood transfusion was performed then,when a person realized that blood is the main component of a living organism and if it is not enough, then a person will simply die. After numerous experiments the doctors came to the conclusion that there is also an incompatibility of blood during transfusion, therefore exact calculations were made on the number of blood transfused and its division into groups according to compatibility.
How the first blood transfusion was performed, and new developments by scientists in this direction
Until the moment when people found specialtools for transfusion, there were different ways. For example, from the very beginning people were given a fresh blood drink of an animal or a man, but, of course, this method was ineffective. In search of suitable methods, attempts were made to use other technologies, the first of which were successfully tested in 1848, but the most effective technology became relevant only in the 20th century.
It was very important to make sure that bloodwas stored for a long time, so in 1926 the famous Alexander Bogdanov Blood Transfusion Institute made an important discovery for medicine, the scientists of this institute proved that it is not necessary to store whole blood, it is quite possible to preserve its components. Based on these conclusions, new methods for plasma preservation were developed, and later, blood substitutes were even created.
Interesting facts from the history of blood transfusion
As a rule, initially a blood transfusion couldonly from relatives who acted as donors, for example, in the 20th century it was believed that only the mother or brother could become a donor. It was believed that in this case there is a small risk that the patient will develop an allergic reaction or blood will not work. But later physicians began to develop the theme of donation and found out that donors can be not only relatives, but also other people who wish to donate blood.
Thus, the history of blood transfusion becameto develop even more rapidly. Every year, a breakthrough is seen in medicine, and now there are many medical techniques that can cure even very complicated and deadly diseases with the help of blood transfusion. For a donor, blood transfusion is an absolutely safe measure, therefore a lot can be done in a year.
What is the essence of blood transfusion in modern medicine?
Currently, medicine is difficult at allsubmit without a blood transfusion. For example, when the autohemotherapy technology is used, the patient has a chance to increase his immunity without the slightest harm to his health, doctors do not have any warnings about this, but in this case, when a blood transfusion is performed, the Rh factor is taken into account and additional tests are submitted, if the donor is a relative. This method of transfusion can be used to update blood, with anemia and other pathologies in the human body. It is important that the doctor can make a timely diagnosis and take all the necessary measures in time to eliminate it.
Who can and can not become a donor for blood transfusion?
To date, being a donor is an honor,so many people are striving to get this title, so it is important to carefully consider the question of who can become a donor and how much blood donors donate for the year. It is not difficult to become a donor at all, absolutely all people between the ages of 18 and 60 are suitable for this, but it is important to remember that you should not have any contraindications for health. At one time, the donor can take almost 500 ml of blood. People who have a body weight of less than 50 kilograms should undergo special doctors who will be able to give a certificate that a person can act as a donor.
Some people may have their owncontraindications, which means that they can not act as donors, in which case there are blood transfusions that can cost lives. For example, a person who has ever suffered such a disease can not become a donor:
- A person who was HIV-positive.
- If there is syphilis, regardless of whether it is congenital or acquired.
- Positive results of tests for hepatitis.
In order to be able to take a plasma, each city has a blood transfusion station, where the alleged donor can take all the tests and make sure that his blood is suitable.
When is the title of an honorary donor given?
If you take into account the statistics, then in a yearone blood transfusion station can on average visit up to 20,000 donors. But the fact is that every year this amount is rapidly decreasing, as young people are not too quick to donate blood, and people of age have limitations. This problem worries any state, therefore, in order to attract as many donors, the title of "Honorary Donor" was coined. How many times to donate blood is a question that most often occurs among young people who want to earn this title. Of course, there are restrictions in this direction, since plasma can be handled not more often than twice a month. Honorary donors are people who do it most.
The problem of shortage of blood for todayis solved in another way, scientists are trying to find a substitute for blood, but so far there is no means by which this could be done, so donating is the only way to save the lives of many people.
How the blood transfusion is protected by law
To attract a large number of donors, they are trying to create all the conditions that are clearly spelled out in the laws of different countries. Consider the main ones:
- On the day when the donor donates blood, he is released from work at the enterprise or in another area of his activity, while wages remain.
- In order for the donor to recover, he is given an additional day off after blood donation.
- The delivery of blood is necessarily confirmed by certificates, on the basis of which the wages for the missed day are calculated.
Regardless of how much blood donors donate, they are all protected by law.
What benefits can an honorable donor expect?
If a person donates blood in the amount of 40 maximum doses, then he automatically becomes an honorary donor. Honorary donors have their own privileges:
- Such people have the right to free treatment.
- Medical products in pharmacies should be released with a 50% discount.
- The history of blood transfusion indicates that many such donors still receive free vouchers for sanitation in sanatoriums to this day.
It should be borne in mind that the surrender of blood does not take much time, it is enough to spend only 15 minutes at least once a month to save a person's life.
Duties of the donor before performing the donor function
To be able to pass the plasma, it must be remembered that for each person there are different rules:
- First of all, the blood transfusion station may require a donor from the donor who will confirm his identity, preferably it should be a passport.
- The donor should know about himself all the necessary information, including about the transferred infectious diseases in childhood.
- The donor must also tell about the surgical interventions he had a year before the blood donation, even if these surgical interventions were minor.
Where and how can I donate blood?
Even in small towns, blood can be takenspecial medical institutions. The history of blood transfusion also includes cases when doctors had to work in the worst conditions, but at the same time they coped at the highest level. Of course, it will not be possible to select individual elements of blood in a non-specialized institution, for the simple reason that the help of many other specialists is required. It is easy to hand over the blood, it's enough to just go to the nearest blood transfusion station and pass all the necessary tests, after which the plasma will be taken directly, and a person can call himself a donor. Sometimes even mobile stations of blood transfusion are created, which is very convenient for people with large employment.
How to properly prepare for blood donation?
To donate blood, it's not necessary to prepare in a special way for this. But nevertheless doctors recommend to adhere to some rules:
- It is not recommended to donate blood if you recently had a tattoo.
- If there are problems with cardiovascular dystonia.
- If a person has recently treated his teeth.
- You can not use two days before the delivery of blood to eat salty, fried, spicy. It is not recommended to drink alcohol and eat dairy products.
As you can see, the history of blood transfusion is veryrich, it constantly changed, every year a huge number of new techniques that help save millions of lives of adults and children, so being an honorable donor is not only responsible but also important for every person.