The established standards of radiation safety. Permissible radiation standards
In the era of the development of nuclear weapons and atomicenergy is not easy to stay away from what is happening, and therefore the norms of radiation safety have acquired special relevance. Their knowledge, perhaps, will help to adequately assess the situation that may arise in the event of a nuclear catastrophe. Despite the fact that the Cold War has long since ended, the most dangerous weapons of mass destruction have not ceased to exist, and the peaceful atom has more than once led to nightmarish consequences. The most tragic example is the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, when the permissible radiation standards were overestimated by dozens of times, and even were not taken into account at all. Many liquidators and victims practically knew nothing about this.
In the Russian Federation, Ukraine, as well as manyother states have established generally accepted standards of radiation safety. They are fixed in laws and departmental normative acts. First of all, the norms of radiation safety concern workers of nuclear power plants, radiation-insecure military and other facilities.
Moving from the generalized knowledge of these norms,it is necessary to characterize and specify them directly. Most directories treat radiation safety standards as the maximum radiation doses to a person with radiation, which are considered relatively harmless to health. In the scientific sense, they have a recommendatory character. Mainly, such norms are established relative to the total dose of radiation from all sources of radiation, which affects a person during the year.
Doses of radiation are measured in the greeks and radishes. These are sufficiently generalized units, not taking into account the fact that exposure to identical doses of different types of radiation results in various biological injuries. For example, a dose of 1 rad alpha emits more than 20 times the biological damage, rather than 1 rad gamma or beta radiation. Radiation safety standards with similar biological effects are calculated using a radiation quality factor (relative biological efficiency), a quantity that is approximately certain.
More objective assessment of the effect of radiation ona specific living organism is carried out taking into account the so-called equivalent (effective) dose. It is determined by multiplying the absorbed dose (in rads) by the radiation quality factor (QA), its non-systemic unit is considered to be biological. equiv. is glad. According to the SI system, the equivalent dose is expressed by sieverts (Sv). 1 Sv = 1 J / kg = 1 Gy, 1 Sv = 100 ber. The permissible radiation norm in accordance with the fixed standards for a person is not more than 0.1 bire (with the exception of natural radiation sources). Professionals working with artificial sources of radiation (workers of nuclear power plants, for example) should not receive radiation over 5 bills per year.
Thus, it is necessary to be able to calculate andto compare the norms of radiation. Also, there are many individual means of measuring radiation available on a free sale. If there is a danger of emergencies associated with the radiation threat, it is important to remember the need for personal protective equipment and sorbents.