The essence of politics
Policy is an activity related to theThe process of organizing and mobilizing resources to achieve collective goals. The very concept has been applied since ancient times. So, the treatise of Aristotle was called "Politics". The word itself came from the ancient Greek "polis" - city-state, community. Thus, the essence of politics, according to Aristotle, had a close connection with the life of society and the state.
A somewhat different definition was given by J. Blondel. The essence of politics, in the opinion of the French political scientist, was, mainly, the activity through which solutions are achieved, which are subsequently implemented in the conditions of society and for its good.
For an extended periodrepresentations of the above activities were purely normative. In accordance with this, the essence of politics consisted in the "struggle for a just order", representing a method of achieving good for the whole society.
In science, the interpretation of the definition depends on the theoretical position of the student.
Policy in the structural and functional senseis an obligatory component of the organization of each collective. At the same time, activities are directly related to goal-setting (setting goals / objectives), coercion and preservation of integrity in the community facing the danger of global threats.
D. Easton (American political scientist) defined the essence of politics as a volitional value distribution. In other words, certain social phenomena were necessarily endowed with meaning. The subsequent clarification of the specifics was connected with establishing the order of access to resources of social importance.
Adherents of the conflict approach determinedpolitics as conflict class interaction (according to Marx) and interaction between interested groups (according to the concepts of Truman, Bentley and other figures).
A number of specialists believe that this publicactivities are aimed at the compulsory settlement of conflicts occurring in society. At the same time, values are the instrument of regulation. According to this concept, there is a shift in emphasis from directly conflict to a peaceful settlement. According to American political scientist Held, the implementation of the policy takes place in the struggle and cooperation of the groups on production, use, and distribution of resources.
According to the proponents of the theory of rationalchoice, should be analyzed in terms of social exchange. In this case, the basic category for research is a particular goal and individual interest. Activities considered as a system of social interaction of individuals seeking collective achievement of goals are formed on the condition that it is impossible to achieve them individually.
The essence of pricing policy
Cost is the most important economicindicator. The enterprise has to reckon with the price and (if possible) influence it. The cost (in a competitive market) is formed, mainly, under the influence of factors that objectively form independently of the enterprise.
The essence of tax policy
This activity is a collection ofactivities in the field of fees and payments. The starting point in the implementation of the tax policy are the provisions in the tax law. Manifestations of this set of measures are benefits, rates, facilities.
Tax policy is considered an obligatory partfinancial policy. The goals and content of this activity are determined by the social and economic structure in society, as well as by groups that have public power.