The breed of cows Kholmogory: description, characteristics, features of content and breeding
Breed of cows in the dairy direction of productivitythere are many. One of the most popular and common in our country is the Kholmogory. This breed was bred in the Arkhangelsk region and is one of the oldest domestic.
A bit of history
The first mention of this breed is related toThe 18th century. For many centuries, these cows were grown in the Kholmogory district of the Arkhangelsk region for pasture technology. From 1693 to 1728, livestock was imported to this area from other countries. After all, Arkhangelsk has always been one of the most important Russian commercial ports. The ancestors of the modern hillock, thus, in addition to local cows, are the Dutch and Holstein breeds. As a result of natural long-term selection, highly productive, hardy and unpretentious animals were taken care of. Officially, this breed was registered in 1937. Since that time, for the most part, there has been a purposeful work to improve it.
Modern Kholmogory breed of cows: description and characteristics
The main distinguishing features of Astrakhan cattle are:
- an elongated trunk;
- long legs;
- smooth back line;
- deep, narrow breasts;
- well developed ass.
Most often Kholmogory cows have black and whitesuit. Sometimes also there are red-motley, black or red animals. The udders of these medium-sized cows with cylindrical nipples. The length of the latter can be from 6.5 to 9 cm. In some individuals, the nipples are widely spaced, others are brought together.
Kholmogory cows are large animals. The weight of an adult heifer can reach 480-590 kg, a bull-calf - 850-950 kg. The weight of calves of this breed after birth reaches 32-39 kg. The slaughter weight of bull-calves is 52-60%.
Despite the large size, the breed is growncows Kholmogory mainly to get milk. In this regard, the productivity of animals is 3600-5000 kg. From some Kholmogory recorders it was possible to receive more than 10,000 kg of milk per lactation.
Where are they divorced?
The only gene pool in our countryKholmogorskoe breed is located in the Arkhangelsk племпредприятии. Hence, the seed of bulls-producers frozen in liquid nitrogen is sent to many regions of Russia. The breed of cows of Kholmogory is grown in our country everywhere. However, this cattle was most widely distributed in Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Moscow, Arkhangelsk and Kirov oblasts. These cows are popular not only in Russia. This breed is also preferred by many farmers in Moldova and Ukraine.
Advantages and disadvantages
Of course, like any other, the Kholmogory breed of cows has its own advantages and disadvantages. The first can be attributed primarily:
- early maturity and fertility;
- fast growth;
- endurance and immunity to unfavorable weather conditions;
- resistance to various diseases.
Some disadvantage of the Kholmogory breedis that sometimes in the litter appear individuals with crooked legs, not too deep chest or narrow back. When grown on poor pastures, the Kholmogory cows practically do not reduce productivity. However, in our time on farms in most cases a mixture of this breed with Holstein is bred. Such hybrids give more milk. However, they are also more demanding on the quality of feeding. Kholmogory breed and its hybrids are allowed to breed in all regions of our country with any climate, including cold.
Features of the content
In the care of a breed of cows Kholmogory veryunpretentious. The only difficulty of cultivation is the development of a balanced diet. With a shortage of these or other substances or underfeeding, these cows can significantly lose in productivity. Incorrect feeding leads, first of all, to the fact that the Kholmogory cows have a shorter lactation period. Among other things, the milk production of these animals is influenced by such factors as:
- level of preparation for calving;
- the correctness of the milking procedure.
To obtain a good milk yield, a breed of cowsKholmogorsky must be grown on such feeds as sunflower and linseed cake, grass mixtures of cereals and legumes, as well as good young hay. In winter, a high quality silage is usually included in the diet.
Care of young animals
Calves of Kholmogory breed to twenty-dayage are kept together with mothers. Then they are transferred to special rooms for young animals and placed in group sections. When the 8-month-old age is reached, the calves are grouped according to development and sex. For each small herd, they develop their own food ration, which necessarily contains vitamin and mineral supplements.
Currently, work to improve the hillockin the Arkhangelsk region, of course, continues. The efforts of breeders are primarily aimed at increasing the milk yield. The Kholmogory breed of cows is improved, the characteristic of which was given above in all details, in the farms using two main technologies:
- Linear. In this case, the characteristics of the breed are improved by using bulls with better indicators as producers. To obtain purebred cattle at the Arkhangelsk peninsula, a sperm reserve of 564,000 doses was created.
- Breeding in families. In this case, the selection of the best individuals is made on the maternal line.
In addition to purebred breeding, in somefarms, as already mentioned, is also carried out golshtinization of Kholmogory cattle. It also allows to increase the milk productivity of cows. However, the Holstein hybrids are not only more demanding for fodder, but also grow older faster. From purebred Kholmogory cows, milk can be obtained from five lactations. From hybrids - only from three. In most farms, hybrids with a share of Holstein genes do not exceed 50%.
Kholmogory breed of cows: the price of young
These cows stand not particularly expensive. After all, they are not bred abroad, but in our country. The cost of one bull is about 13 thousand rubles. This is the price of a calf 2 months old. A month-old bull-calf or a heifer can be purchased for 11 thousand rubles.
Kholmogory breed of cows, thus, is oneof the best in our country. Merits of her just a huge amount. With proper care and proper breeding, the breeding of these animals can be the most profitable and profitable occupation.