The border of Norway and Russia: history and modernity
Borders of States and their violation at all timeswere the cause of wars. Since the times of Kievan Rus, its good-neighborly relations with other countries and principalities have often not been respected by the Rusis themselves and other nations.
It is not often to find long and strongthe relationship between countries, but it was these that linked Rus and Norway. The neighborhood of these two states rarely went beyond a friendly compromise. Confirmation of this is the border of Norway and Russia, the 190th anniversary of which was celebrated in May 2016.
The history of the relationship between Norway and Russia
Varyags called in the Kievan Rus Norwegians,Danes and Swedes. Since the 10th century, they were frequent "guests" of the young state, as dynastic marriages often took place between royal dynasties. For example, Yaroslav the Wise gave his daughter Elizabeth for the Norwegian King Harald, known as the people "formidable." He himself was married to the daughter of the Swedish King Olaf.
Varangian squads served the princes of Kiev andfought against them against the Pechenegs and even went to Byzantium. Many of them remained forever in the Novgorod, Kiev, Chernigov and other lands, and assimilated with the local population. Historically, the centuries-old friendship between Norway and Russia was developing.
Changes in the Norwegian border of the times of Kievan Rus
At that time, state borders often changedtheir borders, then due to successful or not very military campaigns, they were "moved" in the form of a wedding present. For example, until the middle of the 11th century, the border between Russia and Norway passed along the Lyngen Fjord, 50 km further east of the modern city of Tromsø. The same Yaroslav the Wise as a dowry to his daughter gave them and all the surrounding land to the Alta Fjord (now the province of Finnmark).
Similar wedding offerings were accepted from all European royal dynasties, so that the increase in the territory of a neighboring state at the expense of their own lands was not a quirk of the Grand Duke.
Such a border between Norway and Russia remainsuntil the middle of the 13th century, while Alexander Nevsky, who at various times reigned in Novgorod, then in Kiev, then in Vladimir, did not "remove" part of the territories in favor of his northern neighbor. He had already extended the existing line to Tanafjord.
Since in 1397 Norway became a part of theThe Kalmar Union, which is under the personal rule of the Danish kings, the border as it were formed between Rus and Unia. So it was until 1523, until this union broke up because of Sweden's dissatisfaction.
Russian-Norwegian border from the 17th to the 19th century
In 1603 there were to be changes in theborder between the two countries, since an agreement was reached between Boris Godunov and Christian 4, King of Denmark and Norway (1577-1648). On it a new line was to pass Kola Bay and Tanafjord through the Varanger Fjord (the Gulf in the Barents Sea, which separates the Rybachiy Peninsula and the Norwegian peninsula Varanger).
But since the times in Russia were vague and the tsarThey were soon killed, the agreement was never signed. Returned to him only in 1684, but the conditions for dividing the border in it were replaced by new ones. According to this, both Russia and Norway had equal rights to the Kola Peninsula and other disputed lands.
Thus, the two countries owned theseterritories and collected taxes there, but none of them wanted to seriously develop them. This lasted for as long as 130 years, until Norway left the country under Denmark's rule and fell under Swedish rule.
From 1814 to 1826 there was still uncertainty in these lands, since officially the border of Norway and Russia was not established.
Treaty of 1826
This contract was the result of a lot of work,carried out by representatives of the two countries. On it, those lands that have long been in common use, have departed Norway. Difficulty was, first of all, ethical norms, since Lapps, Skits and Saami originally lived in these territories.
It was required that the land border of Russia with Norway should take into account the interests of each nationality:
- Lapps have been fishers from time immemorial;
- Sami, who lived in the mountains, were engaged in reindeer herding;
- slit did not want to leave their Orthodox churches built by their ancestors 300 years ago.
Almost a year left to take into account all interests,and on May 14, 1826 a document titled "The Convention on the State Border between Russia and Norway in the Lapland Pogosts" was signed in St. Petersburg by Count Nesselrode from Russia and Niels Palmshern, the Swedish-Norwegian ambassador.
When preparing the document, the border of Finland was another difficulty.
The border from Finland
The main work on the division of the Norwegian-Russian border was conducted by Valerian Galyamin, a lieutenant colonel of the Russian army, a participant in the Turkish war, an artist and director of the Imperial Porcelain Factory.
He was required not only for his talentpainter to draw a new boundary between two countries, but also diplomatic abilities, since the demarcation included the interests of the three states.
The border of Russia, Norway, Finland, whichwas part of the empire, was held in several places. From the Russian side, it passed from the mouth of the Voryama River to its source and further west to the Church of Boris and Gleb, and then to the south along the Paz River to Raiakoski.
In Finland (the southern part of the border) this ishard-to-reach places from the channel of the Paz through several hills, rivers and lakes to Mount Kolmizoevo-Madakijeds and further to the place of the confluence of the tributary of Scariejok with the river Tana.
The extreme point of the border was the area whereIn 1751, a line was established between Norway and the Duchy of Finland. Behind him were previously undivided Lapland lands. In this form, the border lasted until the 20th century.
Changes in the 20th century
In the 20th century, the border of Norway and Russia several timeschanged its shape, and it was due to military and political events, which this period was oversaturated. You can note the change of the border in such time periods:
- From 1920 to 1944, the Norwegian-Finnish border was formed in connection with the withdrawal of Finland from Russia in 1918 and the annexation of the district of Petsamo.
- In 1947 and 1949 a new treaty was signed and a Soviet-Norwegian border was established.
- Since 1991, Norway has a land border with Russia, whose sovereignty it recognized after the collapse of the USSR.
- The treaty on the delimitation of the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean between the two countries was signed in 1993 and 2011.
If on land with the Russian-Norwegian border everything is simple, then the division of these states into the sea for almost 80 years has been controversial.
Controversial sea border of Russia - Norwayappeared in 1926, when the USSR declared part of the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean unilaterally. No one recognized this border, but they did not want to fight for it either.
It was seized 175,000 km2Norwegian waters, and this has made relations between the two countries tense. In 1976, Norway decided not to lag behind and also unilaterally declared these territories its own.
The only thing that could soften the tensesituation, is an agreement on the joint use of a disputed territory in fishing. Any geological or oil-producing work in these areas was prohibited.
In 2010, an agreement was signed between Russia and Norway, according to which the latter received its water area back in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean.
In our time, the length of the Norwegian-RussianThe border is 195.8 on land and rivers and 23.3 km by sea. Removed in the 90 years of the 20th century, the barriers between the two countries are being restored from the year 2016 by Norway.
The barrier must be an obstacle to penetration into the Schengen zone of refugees.