The article is in English. Types and functions of articles in English
It seems that these little words are completely unnecessary. Indeed, why in English language articles? It seems to make life difficult for all foreigners. But this is not so, with their help you can express yourself very accurately and concisely, the main thing is to use them correctly.
Artikli in English
Like most Europeans, the Britishspeeches use parts of speech that slightly frighten and confuse Russian-speaking. Of course, these are articles. They are also in German, French, Italian, yes, it seems, in all Romano-Germanic languages. But in Russian they are not, so for many it becomes a serious difficulty.
So, how many articles in English? Modern linguists recorded only three: definite, uncertain and zero. The fact that they are extremely necessary, says at least the fact that in the modern text they occupy about 9%. But how did they come about and why?
History of origin and development
Indefinite articleacame from the word one - "one". Sometimes, for the convenience of pronunciation, it takes the forman- it happens if the noun that follows it begins with a vowel.Theis the product of the transformation of the demonstrative pronounthat- "that". Of course, it was somewhat difficult to use the original forms of the concept in which articles are found today, so that the modern versions of them gradually became established in the language. By the way, the history of origin is very useful for understanding when to speaka, and in what -the.
In English for many centuriesa grammatical system, simple enough for the European language, was formed. Here, the article acts as the determinant of a noun, but at the same time it gives the minimum information - whether it is concrete or abstract, calculated or not, was it mentioned earlier. This somewhat simplifies the matter, for, for example, in German this same part of the speech also gives information on the case, number and genus of the lexical unit following it.
In the sentence, the article is placed directlyBefore the word to which it refers, or before its definition. By the way, it can be not only a noun, but also a substantive adjective and participle, as well as verbal forms. However, this can already be attributed to grammatical debris. So, for simplicity, you can consider all these parts of speech to be nouns, which is how they are most often translated into Russian. Also, do not forget about adjectives and numerals, but more about this below.
Types of articles
So, as already mentioned, linguists singled outthree types: definite, indefinite and zero. The latter can be confused with the absence of the article in general, but this is not so - they are used before each noun, and there are no exceptions. It is important only to understand and remember how to properly arrange them, and then the number of errors will drop dramatically.
Individual articles in English,obviously, are needed in different situations. But how can this be learned? Each noun has a determinant before itself - this is the first thing to remember. And the way it is, can influence a lot, up to the meaning of the word. But more often than not everything is not so scary, and even if you completely ignore articles in a speech, native speakers will understand it. To look at this, however, will be somewhat strange, for example, as if all nouns in the usual sentence in Russian were only in the nominative case. Studying foreign grammar, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that it has developed not just so, and therefore, it is worth it to respect.
In general, the rules of use are as follows:
- Indefinite articleaIt is used with nouns in a singlenumber (specific and quantifiable), which are mentioned for the first time. This also applies to the construction there is. In addition, an indefinite article is used in the designation of a person / object as one of many similar ones.
There is a ball on the floor.
I have a doll.
My brother is a student.
- Definite articlethein English is necessary when it comes toabout a familiar object or their set. It is also always used with collective nouns and in front of adjectives in excellent form. The same concerns limiting definitions, and then in translation the article will designate the "same".
There is a ball on the floor. The ball is red.
I have the best doll.
Now he is again.
If there is a possessive (my, your, his, etc.) or a demonstrative (this, that, these, those) pronoun or numeral before the noun, then they replace the article, and it is no longer needed.
It would seem that everything is simple. But this is not all, and you need to know about some of the features that you can face.
The study would have been much easier if it had been so simplewas to explain where and how to put articles. Exceptions in English, unfortunately, are not uncommon, but without them there are many nuances, without which, alas, speech will remain illiterate.
Article A (AN):
- neighbors with an abstract noun if there is a descriptive definition;
- can be used before the name of one's own in the sense of "certain", "someone";
- stands before nouns, if it takes the value of "one" or "another" (sometimes with an uncountable);
- It is used in some stable phrases.
- in English stands next to the family name, which denotes the whole family;
- It is used to designate a concept that is unique in its kind (sky, queen);
- is used with the names of some states, including the words kingdom, federation, republic, etc .;
- stands after the designs of one of, most of, often after both and all (only with countable ones);
- is used with animate nouns to emphasize the prominence of the persons they designate;
- need before people in the meaning of "people";
- points to collective concepts that denote different social strata;
- A noun in a single form, denoting a set of objects;
- is placed before the definitions of the same, next (in the value of "next"), last (previous), following;
- need before ordinal numbers;
- always used with the sides of the world;
- with oceans, seas, rivers and most other water bodies, except for exceptions (bays and individual lakes);
- with the names of archipelagos, groups of islands;
- with the names of mountain ranges, systems;
- with the names of most international as well as national political and other organizations;
- most often with the names of famous theaters, art galleries, museums, etc .;
- with the names of serious sporting events;
- It is used in some stable phrases.
Yes, the list is impressive, but it's worth remembering that theory does not matter if knowledge is not applied in practice.
Even if it seems that he is not, he is surethere is. The absence of an article in English, that is, its zero form, is also information about the word that follows a space. So, the cases of such use are the following:
- the presence of another determinant (pronoun, numeral or negationno);
- The first used noun in the plural;
- name proper, names of cities, continents, countries (except for exceptions), months, days of the week, educational institutions;
- the abstract noun;
- names of sciences;
- the names of newspapers, if the article is not included there;
- an uncountable noun;
- names of individual islands;
- names of lakes and bays;
- the names of individual mountain peaks;
- headlines of newspapers / magazines;
- a noun serving as an appeal;
- In combinations that denote playing a musical instrument or a sport;
- members of the same family in relation to each other;
- in some stable phrases.
It seems that it is very difficult, but it's not at allSo. This knowledge comes gradually in the process of studying, so it is not necessary to memorize these rules. And, by the way, this section is usually mastered much faster than the question of how the article is usedthein English, because there are exceptions and special cases much more.
How to remember?
As in any other field of knowledge, hereonly practice is working. Knowing the theory, you need to constantly find its use. Of course, being in a Russian-speaking environment, it is difficult to find an interlocutor, especially if the study has just begun. But in an age of universal computerization is not a problem to look for a friend on online correspondence. However, it is worth considering that practice should be comprehensive, and you need to train first of all the skills of oral speech. First you have to suffer and blush, picking up words and remembering familiar expressions, but then you do not even have to wonder where to put the articlethein English, and where -a. Well, in case there are serious doubts, you can go for a little trick and replace it with a possessive pronoun or some.