# The age and sex pyramid: types, types, groups. Analysis of the sex-age pyramid of Russia

Summary graphs, charts, tables - irreplaceableaccompanying statistics. One of them is the sex-age pyramid, which provides a rich field for analysis. We will devote this article to it, analyzing the composition of the population of Russia by means of this diagram.

## On the age-sexual pyramid

A sex-age pyramid is a graph that distributesall population by sex and age. It represents, respectively, the opposition of two groups of people of the same age - men and women. The schedule can be compiled by years of life and by more aggregated categories - five-year periods and decades. Its form depends entirely on the purposes of the constituent - to present sex and age analysis of a small period of time or the scale of the century, centuries.

The standard view of the sex-age pyramid is as follows:

• Each selected age is a horizontal bar in the diagram. Indicates the number or proportion of the total population of people of this age.
• The youngest groups are at the bottom of the pyramid, the most overgrown are on the top.
• In the left part of the diagram - the number or proportion of men of a particular age, on the right side - of women.

What first of all says sex-agediagram? On the evolution of the reproduction of the population in a particular period, its type, which is determined by the birth and death rates in different periods of analysis, and, in addition, determines the total number of men and women of a particular age.

## Types of sex-age pyramids

Analysts identify three main types of these pyramids:

1. Reduced. It is characterized by:

• low birth rate;
• low percentage of young people;
• a large proportion of middle-aged and elderly people;
• life expectancy is high;
• the tendency of population aging is noticeable;
• the number of men and women in age groups has been stable or decreasing for a long time.

2. Growing. Its distinctive features are as follows:

• high fertility rates;
• short life expectancy;
• the overwhelming percentage is the young population;
• a small number of elderly people;
• the trend of rapid population growth.

3. Rejuvenating. As a result of a successful demographic policy, there is a significant increase in the birth rate.

Analyzing such a schedule, you can not onlyclearly present the real picture, but also predict the age and sex composition of the population in the future. In addition, sex-age pyramids help to identify the age structure of the population, which we will discuss below.

## Age structures according to Sundberg

As early as 1894, the demographer and statistician A.-F. Sundberg (Sweden) proposed three types of age structure of the population:

1. Progressive. For him, the characteristic high proportion of youngof the population against the background of the elderly. This effect is achieved due to the extended type of reproduction. The sex-age pyramid for this type will have the form of a triangle. The wider its base, the higher the birth rate.
2. Stationary. There is a simple type of playback. The diagram in this case resembles its own bell - the number of young and elderly people is approximately equal.
3. Regressive. In this case, the face is reduced reproduction. The diagram repeats its form by an urn - a small number of children and young people, but a high percentage of adult citizens.

If you compare sex-age pyramids with a graph of the natural movement of the population, you can notice the following:

• A great influence on the structure of the diagram is caused by wars leading to a decrease in the young population and a decrease in the birth rate.
• Reflected on the faces of the pyramid and migration of the population - the proportion of adult men of working age increases.

## The world age and sex composition of the population

If we consider the sex-age pyramids of all world states, the latter can be conditionally divided into the following categories:

• The number of women and men is relatively the same in Latin America and Africa.
• The female population prevails over the masculine -this phenomenon is typical for half of the world's countries, especially in Europe. This was due to the echoes of world wars - until now the harmonious ratio of men and women can not be restored.
• The male population predominates over the female population - typical for Asian countries, mainly for China and India.

## Russian age and sex structure

The age and sex pyramid of the Russian population, compiled according to the results of the general population census in 2002 and according to statistical data, demonstrates the following:

## The age and sex pyramid of Russia in 2017

Let's present the data for 2017 in the form of a table.

 Age: Men: Women: 0 979 812 927 463 10 762 818 727,275 20 711 645 679,614 30 1 305 776 1 286 426 40 1 037 511 1 103 251 50 842 687 956 797 60 867 544 1 163 224 70 412,537 711 701 80 210,032 535 326 90 35,060 143 638 100 2 208 9 400

A sex-age pyramid is important for analysis notonly statisticians and demographers, but also for any person who is not indifferent to the social situation in his country and throughout the world. The diagram allows you to analyze the past and present, as well as make some predictions of the future.