Technological scheme: basic concepts
Production process of any kind of productsconsists of a certain set of actions and operations that make it possible to achieve the final result. It also takes into account the equipment used, the flow lines, mechanized and manual labor, and vehicles. To rationalize the production process and create optimal operating modes at the enterprise, a technological scheme is created that allows you to clearly see the entire sequence of product creation.
Principles of compilation
The technological scheme is included in the normativedocumentation of the enterprise (technological regulations), which also includes production methods, technical rules and process conditions, and their order of execution. At the same time, for a certain stage of the whole process, a separate model can be compiled.
This project is a drawing of blocksall operations, interconnected by arrows, which express the movement of material flows. In this case, forward-return movements can be envisaged, however, in order to rationalize the labor process, engineers in the process of designing the scheme try to avoid such moments. At the same time it is important that the technological scheme reflects the features of the implementation of the development of a particular product and the conditions for its storage and deployment.
For different processes, circuits can be compiledin the form of drawings with a digital or letter designation of equipment, and the operations themselves are expressed in the form of geometric figures (triangle, rectangle, circle and others).
A simple flow chart can include the following basic operations:
- the organization of receipt of the basic raw materials and auxiliary materials from a warehouse or from suppliers, thus loading and unloading works is considered;
- initial processing of raw materials;
- execution of basic operations, with obtaining of basic units, parts or products of intermediate readiness;
- assembly of parts and assemblies, or final processing of products;
- shipment to the finished goods warehouse.
Let's consider a concrete case, for example, the technological scheme of bread production can be presented as follows:
- Preparation and storage of raw materials.
- Preparation of the dough.
- Processing and preparation of dough products.
- Baking of blanks.
- Cooling and preparation for storage (packaging).
For drawing up schemes of production processesdifferent programs are used. For example, the vector editor CADE, developed for Windows. Here there are various templates, it is also possible to fix the IP address, name and serial number of the manufacturer.
Concept Draw Pro is a simple, but very powerful program for drawing diagrams, graphs and charts, by dragging ready-made characters with the mouse. Allows you to create any model of processes.
Diagram Designer - this utility, despite its outdated interface, allows you to create a wide variety of circuit models without much effort.
At the moment at any enterprise, whereproduction is carried out, the technological scheme is used. This is a mandatory regulatory document that allows you to perform adjustment of technological processes in a rational version. When compiling technical documentation, the inclusion of this scheme is mandatory.