Syntactic analysis of words and phrases, analysis of a simple and complex sentence

Among existing parsing parsingword that is part of the sentence and phrase, is not the last role: it allows you to give a full description of these units of syntax. It is important to understand the difference between them, be able to determine the characteristic features for each syntactic unit separately. In other words, syntactic analysis is a grammatical characteristic of a word combination and sentence (both simple and complex).

With this kind of work it is very important to be proficient in skillsdistinguish the basic syntactic units and know the characteristic features of each of them. Requires a certain knowledge and skills in the study of syntax:

- knowledge of the differences between word-combination and sentence;

- the ability to distinguish a simple sentence from a complex one, to determine the method of syntactic communication;

- knowledge of the characteristic features of sentences and phrases, understanding the difference between the grammatical basis and the phrase.

From the Russian language course it is known that the mainunits of speech are words, phrases and sentences. Syntactic analysis of the word (separate) is not carried out, the words are analyzed phonetically and morphologically. But other units are considered from the point of view of syntax, and everything begins with the phrase.

Performing the parsing of a word inphrases, it is common to divide words into main and dependent ones (the main thing is determined and the question is put to the dependent one), simultaneously determining which parts of speech they belong to. The next step is to find out the general grammatical meaning (the subject and its sign, the action and its sign, the action and the subject, and so on). Then the syntactic way of communication is determined, by means of which words are connected with each other. In the Russian language, coordination, adjacency and management are distinguished. In the first case, the dependent word is at the main in the same forms, in the second, it is linked only in meaning, in the third it stands in certain forms that do not change.

In order, the syntactic analysis of the phrase, more precisely, its plan, looks like this:

  1. Determine the main word and dependent, put the question.
  2. To find out the kind of word combination (nominal, adverbial, verbal).
  3. Specify the syntactic connection of words in the phrase.

When parsing a sentence, first of all, it becomes clear what kind of proposal it is, simple or complex, because for each of their kinds there is an order.

So, the syntactic analysis of words (words),constituting a simple sentence, begins with the definition of the main terms, the predicate and the subject. Then we need to find out the form of the sentence for the purpose of the statement (narrative, interrogative or motivational), emotional coloring (exclamation or not). The next step is to determine the type of sentence by the number of grammatical bases (one-part or two-part), whether there are secondary members in it, or not (widespread or unadulterated). In addition, it is necessary to find out the existence of homogeneous or isolated members, that is, it is complicated by something or not.

The analysis of a complex sentence is somewhat differentfrom simple analysis. In this case, it is necessary not only to determine the grammatical bases and type of the proposal, but also to prove that it is complex, to establish, by means of what connection (union or union), simple sentences are combined in a complex one. If the syntactic analysis of words in a complex sentence shows that the union is allied, then it is necessary to determine whether it belongs to the type of compound or compound. In the first case, this is determined on the basis of an alliance - a connecting, separative or adversative one. In the second case, it is necessary to find the main and subordinate clauses, to determine, with the help of which they are related to each other, to raise the question and indicate the type. In the unconditioned sentence, first of all, the semantic connection between the parts and the correctness of the punctuation are revealed. And, finally, the final stage of any syntactic analysis is the drawing up of a scheme of a sentence or a word combination, in other words - a graphic designation of the performed action.

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