Supersonic intercontinental bomber T-4MS ("product 200"): the main characteristics
Projects that did not have time to become a reality, butwho went down in history ... How many of them, forgotten deservedly and not very much. One such project is a strategic supersonic intercontinental bomber-missile carrier developing a design bureau led by PO Sukhoi.
Prerequisites for creation
As is often the case, the question of whetherthe creation of strategic aviation, which already arose earlier, the military raised again in 1967, when the United States decided to create a promising manned strategic aircraft (Advanced Manned Strategic Aircraft). From the AMSA project, the creation of the famous B-1, high-altitude strategic bomber of deep invasion began.
And in January 1969, by order of the Ministerthe aviation industry began a competition between the design bureaus of VM Myasishchev, AN Tupolev, and PO Sukhoi. In accordance with this order, the enterprises had to conduct research on a strategic dual-mode aircraft, to create a power plant, missile armament and airborne systems. Only the creation of a radio electronic complex was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Radio-electronic Industry. His order appeared in the spring of the same year.
The government resolution in the late autumn of 1967 determined the characteristics of the future aircraft.
He should have, first of all, exceptional flight characteristics.
At an altitude of 1.8 km, a speed of 3.2-3.5thousand km / hour. And it was assumed that in this mode and at subsonic speeds near the ground the aircraft must fly at least 11-13 thousand km, and in a high-altitude flight at subsonic the range of flight should be 16-18 thousand km.
A task was also issued on the composition of the weapons. It had to be interchangeable and consisted of freely falling and corrected bombs of various types and purposes, and air-based missiles, four hypersonic X-45 Molniya and up to 24 aerobalistic X-2000s. The total mass of armaments was also set at 45 tons.
Start of development
Sukhoi OK Design Bureau since 1961, also on a competitive basis, was engaged in the development of a supersonic bomber-missile carrier T-4, for a mass of 100 tons of the second-named "Sotka." He had to reach a speed of 3000 km / h, overcome the thermal barrier, and therefore, and have almost perfect aerodynamics. For him, specially developed an air-to-ground missile, power plant and navigation equipment. Approved was only the thirty-third draft of the new aircraft.
On its basis, a new strategicdual-mode T-4MS aircraft with the preservation of maximum continuity with the original model. The new design should have remained: power plant, already mastered new materials, which became standard design and technological solutions, developed and tested on-board systems and equipment and, what would be important in the process of mass production, waste technological processes. Even the cipher machine was obtained by analogy with Sotka. Its take-off weight according to the designers' calculations was approaching two hundred tons, so the aircraft T-4MS - "product 200" became known.
Alas, to realize such a wonderful idea is notmanaged. If you save the layout scheme, the dimensions and weight of the new product increased sharply, but the full amount of weapons could not be placed anyway.
Therefore, the OKB Sukhogo PO. the specialists took up first of all the development of a new layout scheme that would allow to obtain the maximum possible volumes with a minimum washable surface and ensure the placement of the necessary armament in cargo compartments. At the same time, the design should be as rigid as possible so that the aircraft could fly at high speeds near the ground.
In addition, it was decided to exclude frompower circuit of the airplane propulsion system. In this case, it was possible to create new modifications with other engines. The new layout was to keep the possibility of constant improvement of the flight characteristics and technical data of the new product.
During the work of the designer, they createdaerodynamic configuration, the integrated circuit of which was carried out in the form of a "flying wing", rotary consoles of a small area (relatively small, of course) in flight could change the sweep.
The fundamentally new layout of the T-4MS aircraft, agreed at the end of the summer of 1970, served as the basis for the development of the advance design.
Models of this layout were blown in the wind tunnels of TsAGI and showed exceptional results both at subsonic flight speeds and on supersonic.
Due to the small area of the rotary cantilevers and the rigid bearing body of the center wing, the elastic deformation of the wing disappeared during flights at the ground.
In this case, the sweep of the rotary arms was varied from 30 ° to 72 °.
Luck was certain, but the whole next year was devoted to the finalization of the advance project.
The thickness and shape of the wing profile changed toimprove the aerodynamic quality. The use of supercritical profiles was to increase cruising subsonic speed. Investigations have been carried out on how the wing bevels can affect the operation of the power plant and vertical tail. Continued work on the selection of the shape of the wing, in order to increase the stability and controllability of the machine.
The optimal design and power scheme of the airframe was selected to increase the mass return of fuel.
Work on bugs
All the developments were tested in aerodynamicpipes of TsAGI. As a result, experts found that the plane is poorly aligned, there is an instability of at least 5%. It was decided to further refine the layout.
As a result, T-4MS versions appearedhorizontal plumage and a long nose. In one version of the nose and did have a needle-shaped shape. But still, was to further development adopted the layout, in which the nose was somewhat elongated, except for it from the bearing fuselage, there were only the nacelles, the vertical tail with two keels, the rotary wing consoles. Particular attention was paid to the problem of reducing the visibility of enemy radars.
Description of the bomber T-4MS
The aircraft was to be operated by a crew of threea man who was housed in a weakly emerging lantern. At the same time, the commander of the ship, the pilot and navigator-operator had to fly in the spacesuits, despite the fact that the cabin of the two compartments was sealed. The front compartment was intended for pilots, and the rear compartment was for the navigator. Since the lantern practically did not protrude, special flaps were provided to improve the view during takeoff and landing.
Catapult chairs provided a safe emergency exit of the aircraft at any altitude and speed, including during landing and take-off.
Radio electronic equipment on board consisted offrom navigation, flight control systems, radio communication and defense systems, computational, defense-sighting complex, systems for the dilution and control of missiles.
The overall dimensions of the aircraft, which was defined as a supersonic intercontinental bomber, were:
- length - 41.2 m;
- height - 8 m;
- the span of the center wing is 14.4 m;
- wing span with an angle of sweep of 30 ° - 40.8 m;
- the area of the wing with an angle of sweep of 30 ° - 97.5 square meters.
The estimated takeoff weight of the aircraft was 170 tons.
Bomber power plant
In the tail part, in two gondolas, spaced inside, four DTRD NK-101 were located in pairs. Take-off thrust of each of them was 20 000 kgf. It was assumed that the engines will combine the advantages of a dual-circuit engine in cruise flight at subsonic speeds and turbojet during acceleration and in flight on supersonic.
The gondolas had for each engine separated by a partition flat adjustable air intakes, protected from icing and ingress of foreign objects.
In addition to the engines, the power plant included systems for refueling the aircraft with fuel on the ground and in the air, powering the engines, emergency fuel drain, boost, cooling, and fire extinguishing.
The main fuel tanks were located in the center section compartments.
Estimated flight data
The aircraft was designed forlong distances. According to calculations, he could fly without refueling in flight with a normal combat load of 9 tons at a cruising speed of 900 km / h (subsonic) 14 thousand km, and at 3000 km / h (supersonic) - 9 thousand km.
At the height of the bomber could fly at a speed of 3.2 thousand km / h, at the land - 1,100 km / h.
At the same time, the maximum height, according to which the aircraft could be lifted, was 24,000 m.
With such a large mass, the take-off run length was 100 m, and the length of the run after landing was 950 m.
Armament on board
The estimated bomb load was 9 tons of free-falling and coordinated bombs.
The prospective T-4MS missile carrier was to carryfrom two to four long-range liquid X-45 Molniya missiles, which were specially developed for the T-4 project, with an ARRLSH guidance system and a high-explosive warhead. Their feature was a radome-like fairing. The length of the rocket is about 10 meters, the starting mass is 5 tons, the payload is 0.5 tons. The range of its flight is 1,5 thousand km, the flight speed is up to 9 thousand km / h.
Also in the armament of the aircraft were up to 24 X-2000 missiles with an INS guidance system, with a range of up to 300 km, a flight speed of about 2 M and a starting mass of 1 ton.
Various types of weapons, missiles, air bombs,mine-torpedo armament, one-time bombs, had two internal compartments equipped with ventilation and heat protection, transportation and discharge systems.
Results of the contest
For the competition were presented, in addition to the offspring of PO Sukhoi, the supersonic bomber Tu-160M developed by the design bureau of AN Tupolev and M-20 from VM Myasishchev.
Projects were heard at the MAP at the Scientific and Technical Council in the autumn of 1972.
Tu-160 military was first rejected because oftoo much similarity to a passenger plane. M-20 satisfied the military, but the newly created design bureau did not have production facilities for the serial production of the machine.
T-4MS attracted general attention and was recognizedthe best, but ... At the same time, under the direction of PO Sukhoi, a new fighter was created in OKB, which was published under the number SU-27, works were done to create modifications of the existing Su-24 and Su-17M fighters. The Ministry of Aviation Industry considered that these works in "light" aviation are more important, and in two different directions, the design bureau will not be able to work.
So it turned out that the project won the project OKBSukhoi PO, and further work was carried out by the AN Tupolev Design Bureau. And the commander of the Air Force PS Kutakhov proposed to transfer all materials to Tupolev, but they refused and continued to improve their own development independently.
Therefore, the air force got into the aircraftapproximately with the same payload and range at subsonic speeds, but with a flight mass greater by 35% and half the flight range at the superzuka than it could have been had the PO Sukhoi project been adopted.
Immediately after the end of the competition, they were terminatedwork on the T-4MS project. The plane never saw the sky, but the ideas born during its development found their embodiment in the same Tu-160, and in the Su-27 and Mig-29 fighters. Maybe they will also be embodied in the aircraft of the present century.