Suffering and real participles: how are they formed and how do they differ

Everything in Russian is divided into two major categories: independent and service. Among the independent one is considered to be one of the most difficult to understand. The main difficulty for pupils and students is the division into passive and actual participles. In fact, this task will be within the power of anyone who knows the identification features that all representatives of this part of speech possess. In order to distinguish between passive and real participles, it is necessary to remember two simple formulas:

A) The actual participle is used to designate the attribute of the object that performs the action.

B) The passive, in turn, is necessary to designate the subject of the action, i.e., the object on which this action is directed.

passive and actual participles

Type of participle

Verb

Object / subject of action

Example

Valid

To read

Boy / book

A boy reading a book.

The suffering

A book read by a boy.

Sometimes the actual participle is difficult to distinguish from the passive only in meaning. In this case, you need to pay attention to the grammatical and morphemic characteristics of the word. For the formation of this part of speech, special suffix-identifiers are used, by which we can judge with confidence, we see the real participle or the passive participle before ourselves.

real participle

Actual present participles

They take their basis from the present tense verbs (of imperfect form) with the addition of suffixes -usch, -ch (for I conjugation) or -shch, -ch (for II conjugation).For example, the "running" communion is formed from the verb I of the conjugation to run.Picture 1: A girl cooking soup (cooking is a real participle of the present).

Actual past participle

Formed from the basis of the infinitive verbs, standing in the past tense (perfect form), with the addition of suffixes -sh, -vsh.For example, the participle "asleep"formed from the verb "fall asleep".Verbs with the suffix –– this is somewhat knocked out of this rule, since the actual participles formed from these verbs have the corresponding suffix disappears.Example: get wet - soaked.

Suffering Communions

They are formed according to the same rules, but differ from the actual identification morphemes. Thus, the present-day passive participles, derived from the basis of the infinitive verb of the past tense, are characterized by such suffixes as -nn, -enn, -yonn, -t.Examples: say - said (suffix –nn), heat up - hot (suffix -yon).actual present participlesSuffering participles of the present tense take their basis from the verbs of the present tense, to which suffixes are added — it (-s) or-them, depending on the conjugation.For example, the communion “burned” corresponds to the verb I of the conjugation “burn”, and the participle “loved” (not to be confused with the adjective “favorite”) - the verb II of the conjugation “love”.Picture 2: Dog, cursed by the owner (cursed - passive participle of the present time). A curious property of reflexive verbs with postfix –xia is that when they form participles, they retain this postfix. For example: forget - forgotten (real past participle). Thus, learning to understand the variety of participles is not at all difficult.A bit of theory and constant practice will help any beginner "linguist."

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