Stomach hernia: symptoms and treatment, causes
Stomach hernia - what is it and how to treat such an education? This medical term refers to the emergence of any organ from the cavity occupied by it in a normal state, under the skin, into the intermuscular space, or into internal pockets.
Stomach hernia can occur in any person. Therefore, it is very important to know who is at risk of developing such a pathological condition, and how to avoid its formation.
Human anatomy presupposes the presence of a diaphragm. This organ is a kind of partition between the abdominal and thoracic cavities. In turn, it is a smooth muscle, the entire area of which there is only one hole designed for the passage of the esophagus, as well as its connection with the stomach. In the absence of pathologies, the diameter of this opening fully corresponds to the size of the esophagus.But with some provoking factors, it can easily increase, forming a hernia of the stomach.
Types of formations
The mentioned pathology is of two types:
- external hernia;
Only a specialist should determine what type of education has arisen in one or another patient.
Speech about the external herniation of the stomach (see photo below) comes in the event that the pathological protrusion of this digestive organ to the anterior abdominal wall arises due to its weakness. This usually happens as a result of injury or after surgery, when, for example, the integrity of muscle tissue is impaired.
The most amazing thing is that with this pathology the patient does not notice any abnormalities in his body. And even after the diagnosis, the patient is not able to control the development of education.
There is a myth that external herniation of the stomach can occur only from strong tension, constant physical exertion and other provoking factors. This is not true. Very often, this pathology is observed in people who almost always remain in a state of complete rest.
Possible cause of outdoor education
Why there is an external hernia of the stomach? As mentioned above, the main reason for the development of this pathology is the weakness of connective tissue fibers. However, in some cases, this formation occurs due to the genetic predisposition of a person, a sharp weight loss, the presence of severe obesity, the age of 60 years, pregnancy, multiple births, etc.
Varieties of internal hernia
According to its location, an internal hernia of the stomach can be:
Proceeding from the name, it is easy to guess that the first formations have a permanent location, but the second ones appear and disappear (usually under the influence of some provoking factors).
Sliding hernia subspecies
Sliding hernia can be:
- Traction. Such formations arise due to the traction mechanism, which is observed at the time of contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the esophagus.
- Pulse. This subtype of pathology can develop as a result of age-related changes in muscle and interstitial tissues. Very often it occurs in people with obesity, with a sedentary lifestyle,as well as after pregnancy, when the woman's chest cavity was strongly compressed due to the increased uterus and intra-abdominal pressure.
- Mixed This subspecies of the internal hernia is due to the presence of pulsion and traction disorders.
The main reasons for the development of pathology
Hernia AML - what is it in the stomach? The POD abbreviation stands for "digestive aperture of the diaphragm." Just like a stomach hernia, only a specialist can diagnose this pathology. It is remarkable that such formations have the same reasons for development.
As practice shows, people who have crossed the line of 50 years have an atypical location of the digestive organs several times more often than young people. This is due to age-related changes in human tissues, occurring as a result of biomechanical processes, as well as degenerative disorders in the structure of muscles. By the way, if after reaching the age of 50 the patient continues to lift weights, maintain physical activity, etc., then the risk of developing hernia and AML increases significantly.
It must be said that the pathology under consideration almost always arises due to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.In turn, the latter is often observed due to frequent overeating, liver disease, pregnancy and gallbladder disease (that is, if pressure increases in the cavity of the stomach due to the large amount of pathological fluid).
Other causes of development
Why does a stomach hernia occur? The reasons for the development of such education indirectly can serve as chronic constipation, as well as flatulence and increased gas formation.
Some experts argue that people who actively lift weights, experience intense physical exertion, play professional sports, have ever suffered a stomach injury, have experienced multiple births, etc., are always at risk of developing a hernia of the digestive organs.
In some cases, the doctors managed to prove that the said formation is a congenital pathology. In other words, at birth in children, the failure of connective tissue tissues could already be observed. In this case, due to the absence of their elasticity and density, the stomach could easily pass through the diaphragm and get into place.
Symptoms of gastric hernia
Treatment of the mentioned disease should begin immediately after its detection. Unfortunately, not every specialist is able to examine this pathology without having the appropriate examination results.
What are the symptoms of gastric hernia? The main symptom that indicates the presence of this entity is pain syndrome. It should be noted that the intensity of such sensations, the localization of protrusion, as well as other characteristics are very similar to a disease called reflux esophagitis. By the way, many experts suggest that it is the latter disease that leads to the development of a hernia of the digestive organ.
Signs of fixed education
With such a hernia, the pain may resemble certain heart problems (for example, as with angina). The patient is often concerned about the symptoms of angina pectoris, as well as a sharp squeezing in the center of the chest, aches, and discomfort in nearby tissues and organs.
Most often, discomfort during gastric hernia occurs after eating a meal, in particular after overeating, when bending forward, lying on the back for a long time, during periods of active physical exertion or immediately after it.
How else can a stomach hernia appear? The symptoms of this formation can be confused with the symptoms of many diseases. For example, very often the mentioned pathology is accompanied by belching. First, it is with air, then the smell of the contents of the stomach is observed, after which a bitter aftertaste is clearly felt. Such signs are connected with the fact that in the presence of a regional section of the stomach in the esophagus lumen, its acidic contents are thrown. Thus, we can safely say that the hernia of the digestive organ is characterized by belching with a gradual increase in its intensity.
Heartburn is inherent in this pathology. As a rule, it is observed at moments of physical activity, in a horizontal position, overeating and taking carbonated drinks. This condition is quite difficult to eliminate with the help of tablets. Most often, it passes on its own after the contents of the stomach goes into the intestines.
What is dangerous stomach hernia? Experts say that pathological changes associated with a difficult natural reposition of the main digestive organ in a normal state, often lead to the occurrence of dysphagia. The presence of such a disease indicates an aggravation of the process and its progression.In this case, the patient may experience complete esophageal obstruction (that is, the person loses the ability to swallow). Dysphagia that lasts longer than two days requires urgent surgical intervention.
Also, when the patient has a stomach hernia, bleeding may occur. Usually, this symptom is seen during vomiting or is determined by the color, consistency of feces (becomes gel-like and black). Thus, the patient has severe anemia (due to blood loss), which can lead to disastrous consequences.
How to get rid of stomach hernia? Treatment of this disease should begin only after the diagnosis. Therefore, at the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to immediately contact a gastroenterologist.
It should be noted that very often gastric hernia is asymptomatic. Patients may experience only minor heartburn, as well as periodic discomfort in the epigastric region. As a rule, people do not attach particular importance to such symptoms, so many of them learn about the presence of education only during diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. By the way, if a hernia is suspected, the doctors first of all refer the patient to the EGD.
Gastric hernia treatment
Concerning the treatment of hernia of the main digestive organ, there are many opinions. Some experts insist on immediate surgical intervention, while others are confident that such a state can be corrected for quite a long time using certain medications. In this case, the latter refer to the fact that people with a stomach hernia live to old age and are not even aware of its presence.
There is also such a category of doctors, which completely asserts that the symptoms of this deviation are contrived, exaggerated and should be corrected only in the process of psychotherapy.
So how is a stomach hernia treated? Removal of this formation is carried out only when it reaches a large size and takes more than 1/3 of the entire esophageal lumen, which threatens to suffocate. It should also be said that urgent surgical intervention can be prescribed for gastric ulcer, internal bleeding and the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy.
Fortunately, in 90% of cases of surgery for the removal of a hernia, patients can be avoided. At the same time it is necessary to be under the supervision of a specialist for some time.If the hernia was detected for the first time, then it is worth stopping to overeating, as well as eating fried, fatty, spicy and spicy foods. In addition, it is necessary to forget about tobacco and alcoholic beverages.
Conservative treatment of gastric hernia involves taking the following groups of drugs:
- Neutralizing acidity or the so-called antisecretory drugs. Such preformed medications include: Esomeprazole, Omeprazole, Rabeprazole, and Pantoprazole.
- Prokinetics or drugs that increase the tone of the sphincter located at the junction of the stomach with the esophagus. Such medicines normalize the natural passage of the food lump. These include: "Motilium", "Tsirukal", "Tsizaprid."
- Antacids or drugs that normalize enzyme metabolism and inhibit acidity ("Almagel", "Smekta" or "Maalox").
The presence of gastric hernia implies the observance of strict restrictions in the admission of certain products. A diet with this pathology must be balanced and rational.The patient must eat in small portions up to 5-6 times a day, chewing food well. In this case, only boiled, stewed and steamed food is allowed.
In order not to create intra-abdominal pressure during constipation, in the patient's menu, you must include sea kale, prunes, beets, fresh vegetables.