St. Panteleimon Monastery, Athos
For many centuries on Mount Athos isSt. Panteleimon monastery. Many know it under a slightly different name - Rossikon. It has long been referred to the category of Russians, but in fact it is not more than several centuries, since it is controlled by the Russian Church. He is one of the twenty "ruling" monasteries in these fertile places.
Among the saint's monasteries he was givennineteenth place. In fact, he directly obeys the Patriarch of Constantinople - St. Panteleimon monastery on Mount Athos is one of the Stavropegic Patriarchs. Immediately with the admission into it a person receives the citizenship of the Greek Republic. This feature is prescribed in its charter, which was approved back in 1924.
Features of the monastery
In the south-western part of the Athos peninsula isPanteleimon monastery. It is located very close to the shore. At first glance, its special majestic, and even in some way a fabulous appearance with traditional white-stone walls and churches and temples, whose walls are also distinguished by white decoration, attracts attention.
The peculiarity of this monastery, unlike allThe rest, which are also located on this peninsula, is that it is almost level with the sea level. That is, already from the water travelers see its walls and majestic vaults. The structure combines several styles at once: experts trace not only classical features, but also elements inherent in Byzantine culture, as well as Russian temples located in the north of the country. Among such characteristic elements of the Panteleimon Monastery on Mount Athos are tall and narrow windows, along with domed shrubs of the squat type.
Another feature of the monastery is its interiors. Here there is a chic carved iconostasis and ancient frescoes, many ancient icons. Here a large number of other church relics was collected.
The erection of the Panteleimon monastery's catholicAfone dates back to the very beginning of the nineteenth century, when this place was consecrated by the name of the famous Great Martyr Panteleimon. The relics of St. Panteleimon are also kept here, and anyone who visits these places has the opportunity to bow to them.
Another feature of St. PanteleimonThe monastery on Mount Athos is the ensemble of bells present here. Each of them was presented to him by Russian tsars. The mass of the largest among them reaches 13 tons.
The history of the monastery
The settlement of Russian monks in these places waswas formed approximately in the 11th century. And the status of a separate full-fledged monastery was assigned to him only in 1169. For several centuries, there were practically no Russian monks here. Although the Russian Panteleimon monastery on Mount Athos was founded by our ancestors, but for a long time a Russian voice was seldom heard within its walls.
The first inhabitants
So, when the Tatar-Mongolianyoke, predominantly local monks were Serbs, as well as Greeks. But already in the 16th century, the apparent numerical superiority in the Russian SvyatoPanteleimon monastery on Mount Athos was beyond the Serbs. This has documentary evidence: in those days the management of the monastery corresponded with the ruling authorities, which was then in Moscow. But the Holy Panteleimon monastery (Athos) at that time did not care much for the authorities, the situation was too complicated inside the country itself.
The most difficult for the monastery was the 18th century,When he left only four monks under the leadership of the Bulgarian hegumen. Half of them were Russian, and the second half was Bulgarians. This was witnessed by Vasily Barsky, who managed to visit here in 1726. And less than a decade later the Panteleimon Monastery of Athos was declared Greek.
The relocation of monks from the Panteleimon Monastery on Athos happened in 1770, when they all moved to the coastal cell.
Russian history of the monastery
The main history of the monastery is only from the 19th century, when Old Rossik was used as a monastery. Times were heavy then.
Dimensional life in these parts reigned onlyafter the Adrianople world, which was the result of the end of the Turkish occupation of the territories. Despite the stabilization of the situation in the region, the monastery could not return its former possessions - they were taken to account for old debts by other monasteries located in these parts. Russian St. Panteleimon monastery on Athos, of course, was experiencing serious difficulties.
In those days, there was even athe exclusion of the Panteleimon Monastery on Mount Athos from among the official monasteries, but it was not implemented by Constantius I, who at that time held the high post of the patriarch of Constantinople.
Russian presence in the monastery since that timewas encouraged: Gerasim, who was the abbot of the Panteleimon Monastery on Athos from 1821, despite his Greek affiliation, was also pleased with this. But especially the Russian beginning began to develop here only after the 1830s, when Hieromonk Jerome and Hieromonk Anikita arrived here.
Moreover, after the death of the local leaderElder Arseny in 1846, it was Father Jerome who received the status of his successor - rector of the Holy Panteleimon Monastery on Athos, despite the multinational composition of the inhabitants. And the establishment of the Russian leadership then had a completely natural character - the hieromonk did not aspire to a leading post. He got his place thanks to his experience, participation in the needs of others and active ascetic activity. The abbot of the Holy Panteleimon Monastery on Mount Athos, both then and now, is a position highly revered in the circles of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The period of active development
Since the second half of the 19th century, a period has begunactive growth and rebuilding of the Panteleimon Monastery on Athos. This became possible largely thanks to the patronage and favor of the imperial court.
In 1861 the brothers of the Panteleimon Monastery on Mount Athosdecided to send Arseny Minin to Russia. The main purpose of his visit was to collect donations. It was he who in 1867 brought a number of local shrines to the territory of the Epiphany Monastery, located in Moscow.
In 1875, the very first of the numberRussian hegumens of the Panteleimon Monastery on Athos. They became Archimandrite Makarii. Since that time, the Russian brethren of the monastery especially grew and gained activity. The result of this process was the requirement of most monks that the monastery received official Russian leadership, as well as a number of other similar settlements on the peninsula.
In fact, under the Russian control of the Holy Synod, the monastery came only in the first years of the 20th century. But this was a direct contradiction to the charter of the monastery, which was adopted in 1924.
In fact, as the authorities of the Soviet Union,and the Orthodox Church of the country continued to consider the Russian Panteleimon monastery, located on the peninsula of Athos, including it as a group of the ROC monasteries. But the documentary grounds for this civil or church belonging were simply absent.
The Patriarchate of Constantinople, in factthe jurisdiction of which was a monastery all these years, soon officially recalled his rights and announced the ban of the Patriarchate of Moscow in the framework of public services held on its territory.
Transfer of the monastery to the Moscow jurisdiction
Meanwhile, the number of local inhabitantsconstantly increased. If in the beginning of the 20th century there were 1,446 monks, in 1913 this number exceeded 2000. This greatly helped in the protection of the monastery from regular fires, the largest of which occurred in 1307, as well as in 1968.
Throughout history, while changingthe abbots of the Panteleimon monastery on Mount Athos, his Russian brothers always stood for his protection when necessary. Among the most famous historians call the elder Siluanus.
But over the years the Patriarchate of Constantinopleadhered to the policy aimed at the survival of the formed Russian monastery of the Holy Panteleimon Monastery on Athos. Moreover, Greece made every effort to restrict the arrival on its territory of citizens of the Soviet Union. The consequences did not take long: at the end of the 20th century, the number of its inhabitants fell sharply to 13 people.
Ultimately, the leadership of Constantinopleofficially recognized before the Moscow Patriarchate the plight of the monastery. When, in the absence of replenishment from outside, the local elderly regularly died, a decision was made to transfer jurisdiction to Moscow. So this place became one of the Russian corners in the territory of Athos.
All-Russian Patriarch first visited hereholy places as early as 1972. At that time, the government of the country actively promoted the development of the monastery, so the situation became normal over time.
"The Age of Revival" for the monastery
Real active development of PanteleimonThe monastery was given only after the state of the USSR collapsed. This is really confirmed by statistics: in 1981 the number of inhabitants here was only 22 people, but in 1992 this figure increased to 40.
Since then, the Russian church leadershipperiodically visited the monastery. Patriarch Alexy II, who headed the ROC until 2008, visited here in 2002, and its current head Patriarch Kirill in 2013.
Among the top leaders of the country, Vladimir Putin visited the Saint Panteleimon Monastery for the first time.
The year 2011 was marked by the creation of a special fund andboard of trustees for the Panteleimon Monastery on Athos. The corresponding proposal was made by D. Medvedev. This was necessary for the preservation, as well as the restoration of the spiritual and cultural population of the monastery. To date, this fund is prescribed missionary and publishing activities, work continues on the reconstruction of the premises of the monastery and the erection of new ones.
To date, the territory of Athos ismore than 2,000 monks who represent different brethren. Of these, the Panteleimon monastery is slightly more than 70. Each of them has Greek citizenship, which is given directly at the decoration in the monastery.
The current state of the monastery
At the moment, Panteleimon monastery at Athos is headed by Hegumen Evlogiy. He replaced on this post schiarchimandrite Jeremiah, who had been the head of the city since 1979.
And today on the territory of the monastery officially live just a little less than eight dozen monks, mostly from Russia, also there are representatives of Belarus and Ukraine.
On the territory of the monastery is a dozendifferent churches - for Mount Athos this is a huge figure. In their territory there are many revered ancient relics, including the relics of several apostles and the icon of the Mother of God of Jerusalem, known for its miraculous action.
Another local value is the librarymonastery. Its fund consists of 20 thousand printed editions of various times, as well as more than 1300 manuscripts written both in Russian and in Old Slavonic.
From the side the local buildings are like a small town. Above the small buildings there are white-domed church domes, as well as buildings in several floors.
Previously, the monastery's archhodark had enoughA spacious room, which, among other things, housed royal photographs. But after the largest fire that occurred in 1968 on the territory of the monastery, it was moved outside the monastery. Now it occupies an impressive structure near the sea shore.
Now the Panteleimon monastery has the status of a community house. Of the few dozen monks, only one is a Greek.
Premises of a modern monastery
To date, the complex of monastery buildings includes many premises.
The largest among them are:
- several chapels;
- 4 exertimes.
The construction of the local cathedral began in 1812,and the work was fully completed by 1821. This information is contained in the inscription that adorns the entrance to it. Its appearance is traditional - the building is similar to other monasteries operating in the territory of Athos. He was raised in honor of St. Panteleimon.
For the walls of the building used previouslyhewn stones of rectangular shape. Its roof is made up of eight separate domes, on the top of each of which rises a cross. Similar domes can be seen on each of the local chapels.
The interior space of the cathedral was paintedRussian artists back in the 19th century. Each visitor can see beautiful murals along with a decorative iconostasis. Since 1875, after the appropriate indication of the service in the monastery went parallel in two languages - in Russian and in Greek. This tradition is preserved today.
Another impressive structure, refectory,is located opposite the entrance to this cathedral. This room is a rectangular building, which occupies the central part of the monastery courtyard. He was also painted with frescoes almost a century and a half ago, shortly after the building itself was laid (1890). The hall itself has an impressive area - at the same time it can accommodate about 800 people.
The upper part of the facade is decorated with a belfry. Here you can find a lot of bells of different sizes.
On the territory of the monastery and nearby itthere are several small chapels. The main ones are the chapel of St. Mitrofan near the library and the Assumption of the Virgin near the cathedral, as well as St. Dimitri, Vladimir and Olga, St. Alexander Nevsky and others. Another monastery owns five cells, and two of them are located in Karey.
Relics, stored in the monastery
Today in the Panteleimon MonasteryOn Mount Athos there are about three hundred relics of various saints along with a lot of famous in the world miraculous icons. Its main shrines are located in the cathedral. First of all, these are the icons of the Mother of God "Kazan", "Jerusalem" and "Abbess of the Holy Mountain of Athos".
Mosaic icons and various church utensils are also kept here. Among other things, it is represented by crosses and medallions.
A well-known thing in the monastery is the printed Gospel and the sacred chalice, which the monastery received as a gift in 1845 when she was visited by Prince Constantine Nikolayevich.
A lot of riches and relics are stored herelibrary. Under it is a detached structure with a height of two floors. Of particular value are Slavic and Greek manuscripts, paper and parchment codes along with printed, including old-fashioned publications.