Spirea: landing and care. Types and varieties of spirea
The most beautiful deciduous shrub familiar to almost everyone is a spirea. The plant, which is popularly called “tavolga” by the people, and from ancient Greek its name literally translates to “bend”. This is confirmed by the beautiful flexibility of graceful shoots.
Spirea, planting and caring for which do not constitute a particular difficulty, was first mentioned in Sadko's bylina, further its description is found in V. I. Dahl’s dictionary, explaining that sprouts because of their fineness and strength were used for composting and as whips .
Semi-deserts, steppe and forest-steppe areas are territories on which a beautiful spirea feels comfortable. Its types are diverse and are characterized by frost resistance, decorative effect and duration of flowering. Among the varieties of spirea are found as dwarf specimens (up to 15 cm), and tall, reaching up to 2.5 meters. Spiraea is a shrub with a lobe root system that leaves shallowly beneath the ground.The branches of the shrub, the color of which in nature is from light brown to dark, erect or creeping, spreading or recumbent. The bark has the property of longitudinal exfoliation. Spirea leaves alternate, petiolate, lanceolate or rounded, three- or five-lobed. Small numerous flowers, the color of which varies from gently white to raspberry, form inflorescences of various shapes: paniculate, pyramidal, spike-like, shield-like. She is such a beautiful and diverse spirea. Its species are characterized by a different position of the inflorescences: in some, they are located along the entire length of the shoots, in others - only on the upper part, in the third - at the ends of the branches.
Spirea as a decorative element of the garden
Spirea, planting and caring for which bring true joy due to the undemanding nature of the plant, is divided into species, which bloom in the spring and summer period.
Spirey dwarf varieties look spectacular in rockeries, when creating live "carpet coverings" and in rocky gardens. Looks harmoniously and completely alone. Snow-white spirea is a shrub that adds elegance to the whole environment.Ordinary shrubs are used for group planting and creating hedges.
Spring spirea, varieties of which have early flowering periods, is characterized by strong tillering and flowers of exclusively white shades blooming on the shoots of the previous year.
Spring bush varieties
Gray spirea–the most common variety, flowering period which falls in May - June. Being a whitish-gray and animal-bee hybrid, the bush, contrary to the name, blooms along the entire length of the branches with white flowers, formed into corymbose inflorescences. Gray look for the color of the leaves. The height of the bush is 180 cm, the branches are drooping, the leaves are lanceolate.
Spirea gray "Grefshaym."The bush, whose diameter varies from 1.5 to 2 meters, has a spreading crown with drooping, red-brown branches. Snow-white terry flowers collected in umbrellas are 1 cm in diameter. The plant is a honey plant, the flowering period starting from 2 years of planting is about 45 days.
Spirea Wangutta.Being a hybrid of spirea three-lobed and Cantonese, it is a huge bush with a height and diameter of about 2 meters.It has drooping branches with toothed, three-lobed leaves, dark green above, gray-blue below, acquiring a red-orange color in autumn.Hemispheric numerous inflorescences consist of small (6 mm) white flowers located along the entire length of the branch. Spirea Wangutta, care of which does not cause any difficulties, will delight with its flowering in June - August.
Spirea Argut.This is the earliest flowering of the existing species of spirea. Huge (1,5-2 meters in diameter), sprawling bush has a beautiful shape. Flowering branches, resembling a frosty snow-white waterfall, consist of small fragrant flowers streaming along the entire length of the shoots. Such a charming sight (bloom arguty) lasts only 3 weeks, starting from the end of May.
Spirea Nipponskaya.In nature, this type of shrub, reaching a height of 2 meters, grows on the island of Honshu. Characteristics: a dense spherical crown, formed by horizontally arranged branches, which remain green until late autumn. The leaves in length reach 4.5 cm, the flowers are small, yellow-green, although the color of corymbose inflorescences is purple.Flowering lasts three weeks, starting in June.
Spirea bush: summer varieties
The blooming spirea, varieties of which are in large numbers, in addition to the timing of flowering, are characterized by the location of the inflorescences. With a skillful selection of varieties of spirea will delight continuous long flowering throughout the season. A prominent representative of this species is Japanese spirea, the care of which is a real pleasure - it is a beautiful shrub, blooming red-pink flowers, gathered in beautiful inflorescences. The shoots are felted at a young age, laid bare as they age. The height of the bush is 1-1.5 meters. Leaves ovate, oblong, green on top, gray-gray from the bottom. In autumn they turn red, yellow and purple. The flowering shrub with inflorescences located at the ends of the shoots lasts 45 days.
Types of Japanese Spirea
Spirea Japanese "Golden Princess".Shrub with spherical crown, oval yellow leaves and corymbose inflorescences, consisting of pink-red flowers. Flowering occurs in June - July.
Spirea Japanese "Little Princess".Low shrub up to 60 cm.The crown in diameter is 1.2 meters, rounded. The leaves are oval, dark green. Inflorescences are corymbose, consist of red-pink flowers.
Spirea Japanese "Shiroban."Low shrub, up to 80 cm with a sufficiently spreading (up to 1.2 meters in diameter) to the crown. The leaves are small, dark green, lanceolate form. Snow-white or pink flowering is fascinating, in terms of July - August.
Japanese spirea "Goldflame".It is a low shrub, reaching a height of 80 cm, with small red-pink flowers. Such a spiraea is original due to the yellow-orange leaves, which become bright yellow with time, and in the autumn acquire a copper-orange color. Spiraea yellow Goldflame is a true decoration of the site that repeatedly changes the shades of foliage during the season.
Spirea Japanese "Crisp".Such a shrub stands out for its original openwork; its height is about half a meter, somewhat wider. Spherical crown with numerous upright shoots stands out pale pink umbrella-like inflorescences. Flowering occurs in July and lasts about 2 months.
Varieties of summer varieties of spirea
Spirey Bumald.It is a hybrid of white flowers and Japanese, has upright shoots with leaves: green in summer and acquiring rich orange-purple shades in autumn. The shrub is short, reaching a height of 50 - 80 cm. Such a spirea blooms with pink flowers (from pale to dark shades), this process occurs in July and lasts about 2 months.
Spirey Douglas.A fairly high (up to 1.5 meters) spreading shrub, characterized by upright, pubescent stems of red-brown color. The leaves are oblong, have a lanceolate form. The flowers are dark pink, collected in the apical, panicle-pyramidal narrow inflorescences, which bloom in July - September.
Spirea is a willow.High two-meter shrub, characterized by upright shoots that have a red-yellow-brown color. Leaves up to 10 cm long, pointed, as can be seen from the name of this type of spirea. Flowers (pink or white) are formed into pyramidal paniculate inflorescences, the length of which reaches 20 cm.
Spirey Billard.It is the result of the crossing of the wolfish spirea and Douglas. Winter-resistant variety, characterized by sprawling branches, broadly lanceolate leaves about 10 cm long, bright pink flowers, connected in paniculate inflorescences.Flowering occurs in the second half of the summer and continues until frost. Shrub loves sunlight, although it can grow in the shade.
Planting spirea should be made in the spring, before the leafing. Land intended for planting should be located in a sunny place; prefers the soil of spirea fertile, despite the unpretentiousness. When planning the placement of the spirea on the site, one should take into account the abundant growth of root growth, which contributes to an increase in the area occupied by the plant. For planting should prepare a hole the size of a little more than the volume of the root system prepared for planting seedlings. By the way, a sapling before planting should be inspected, with the roots too overgrown, shorten the latter. If the roots are overdried, you need to cut the branches of the plant, which is also placed in a container with water, then planted.
Prepared landing pit should stand 2-4 days. On the day of planting, which is recommended to be carried out in overcast weather, the bottom of the pit should be filled with a drainage layer of 15-20 cm broken brick.When clay type of soil in the pit is required to add 1 part of sand and peat and 2 parts of turf or leaf land. Spiraea seedling should be lowered into a hole, gently straighten its roots, cover it with earth (not higher than the root collar), then compact the soil. After planting the plant is required to water (water consumption per bush - 1-2 buckets) and mulch with peat.
Autumn planting spirea is usually combined with the seedlings of an adult plant, which is produced by dividing the bush, the optimally suitable age of which is 3-4 years. Older plants are harder to divide due to the impressive earthen coma, which is inconvenient to extract from the ground and launder.
To divide the bush, the latter should be excavated, grabbing around the circumference of a territory that is a little over half of the crown projection. In any case, several roots will be damaged by a shovel, but the plant will not suffer much from this. After removing the plant, the roots should be well washed, after which the bush should be cut with a pruning sheath into 2-3 parts so that each has 2-3 strong shoots and a root lobe.
Then you should dig a hole, in the middle of which pour a mound.Next, you need to install a seedling, flatten its roots, then fill it with soil and compact. Next, the planted plant is required to water abundantly.
Spiraea: care features
Spiraea shrub, planting and care of which is little hassle, completely unpretentious plant; solar lighting, good drainage and mulching with peat immediately after planting are important for her. At observance of such factors the shrub will fully please with its abundant exquisite flowering and luxurious dense foliage.
Moderate watering is required, especially in the dry season, because the shrub has a shallow root system that does not tolerate dry soil and begins to dry with a lack of moisture, which means that it must be watered 2 times a month in the summer, spending about 15 liters of water for 1 bush .
Important factors in the care of spirea are loosening and weeding in order to saturate the soil with oxygen.
Spirea feeding is done after trimming the bush with complex mineral fertilizers. In the middle of summer, spiraeus can be fed with a mullein infusion with superphosphate added to it per 10 liters of a solution of 10 grams of the drug.
Mostly spiraea is a plant that is not exposed to diseases, but still there is a certain number of enemies in such a shrub.
The potential enemies of the spirea are the aphid and spider mite. From aphids, the use of the drug "Pirimor" is effective, with the spider mite "Karbofos" will easily cope.
Spirea: a description of the pruning process
Spirea - shrub with a rich crown, which tends to grow, therefore, needs such an element of care as pruning. In early-flowering varieties, only the tips frozen in winter are required to be cut off, because they bloom along the length of the entire shoot. Once in 7-14 years old shoots must be removed completely, cutting the plant almost to the stump. From the strongest young shoots in the amount of 5-6 pieces in the future to form an updated bush, removing the remaining branches during the growing season. After 1-2 years, spirea pruning will again be needed, in which the bush should be rid of weak and old shoots.
The flowering shrubs are pruned in early spring each year. The shortening of the shoot is made up to large buds; it is necessary to get rid of the weak and old branches.The more pruning the spirea, the more massive and more powerful the shoots will be. Upon reaching the bush 4 years of age, it can be clipped to a height of 30 cm from the surface of the earth.
In addition to division of the bush, spiraea multiplies by cuttings, branches and seeds (for non-hybrid varieties). When grafting, the rooting rate of the plant is quite high, at 70%. Early flowering spireas should be grafted at the beginning of June, late flowering shrubs at the end of June - July. Lignified cuttings are planted in the autumn period (September - October).
For grafting, one-year-old sprout should be cut, cut into pieces, leaving 5-6 leaflets on each. Lower leaves on each handle must be removed along with petioles, the rest should be cut to half of the leaf. After that, cuttings for half a day should be placed in a solution of epine (at the rate of 1 ml per 2 liters of water); then the lower knot of the cutting is required to be treated with a Kornevin stimulator, after which the spirea seedlings should be planted in a container with wet sand at an angle of 30-45 degrees. Planted plants, pre-covered with a film or glass, you want to put in the shade and 2-3 times a day to spray with water.Before the onset of frosts, cuttings should be prikopat on the garden, cover with foliage, upside down box and leave in this state until spring. In the spring, ready young saplings will give new shoots, after which they can be planted at a permanent place of growth.
Spirea, the reproduction of which is also carried out by layering, is fairly easy to root. The abduction process consists of putting a growing spirea shoot into a groove previously dug in the ground; bent branch is required to pin and sprinkle with earth. In the fall, the layers should be carefully removed from the ground, divided into regrown shoots and planted.
Spirea, planting and caring for which even a beginner can do, is a beautiful plant - unpretentious and effectively ennobling any section with its original inflorescences. Especially harmoniously, spiraea looks on the background of a lawn or buildings, and in composition with thuja or juniper it will ennoble any territory.