Smears on gonorrhea. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases
Gonococcus is the most commonthe causative agent of infectious diseases. Gonorrhea is called the most "popular" venereal disease in our time. The origins of the disease come to us from Bible times. Hippocrates in his writings described a disease with similar symptoms.
Gonorrhea (gonorrhea) is a disease caused bybacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This bacterium is found only in humans. Infection in 90% of cases occurs sexually, in 10% - contact-household (towel, underwear), although this is rare, because a malicious microorganism can die out of the human body, exposed to sunlight, treated with antiseptic agents.
The probability of infection with unprotected sexThe act reaches 70% if the partner is infected. A relatively high percentage of infection with gonococcal infection in comparison with other sexually transmitted diseases. Infection affects mainly the mucous membranes of the urogenital system.
Smears on gonorrhea, as a rule, are appointed by the doctor when the patient calls. The most common causes of a doctor's visit are obvious symptoms of gonococcal infection:
- pain during intercourse;
- purulent discharge;
- lower abdominal pain;
- presence of unpleasant odor.
Infected with infection, a woman feels a burning sensation andpain during urination, while they become frequent and quite painful. If you do not treat the infection, it can cause a serious disease - infertility, both female and male. In men gonorrhea causes purulent urethritis. If the disease progresses, it is fraught with additional diseases, such as prostatitis.
If the infection has passed into a chronic form, it is difficult to diagnose. In 80% of cases, the disease is asymptomatic, or they can be minimal.
The incubation period lasts from 3 to 15 days.
Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases involves many methods and different methods of detecting infection:
- Inspection of the genitals by a doctor.
- Bacterioscopy (method of bacteriological research to isolate the causative agent of gonorrhea).
- Microbiological culture with the determination of sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs.
- Smear microscopy.
- Definition of infection by PCR (polymer chain reaction).
- Immunoenzyme method (ELISA).
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
Smears for gonorrhea, indications for smear:
- spontaneous abortion;
- chronic urogenital infections;
- acute inflammation;
- communication with a partner infected with the infection.
Preparation before delivery of a smear:
- To exclude the sexual certificate or act 1-2 days prior to delivery of a smear;
- Do not use alkaline products for intimate hygiene 1 day before and immediately on the day of the test;
- You can wash yourself with warm, clean water;
- Do not use synthetic napkins;
- Do not douche and do not use vaginal suppositories;
- 2-3 hours do not urinate before giving the smear.
Smears on gonorrhea do not surrender during menstruation. It is better to take the test 2-3 days after the end of the menstrual period or before the menstrual cycle begins.
How to take a smear
Bacteriological study of a colored smear on the flora is taken by a gynecologist from three localizations:
For the study, a small amount of mucus from the above-mentioned localizations is taken.
Immediately before this, the doctor insertsthe vagina is a mirror to push apart its walls. The size of the mirror is selected for each patient individually. This procedure is unpleasant, and in order to experience a minimum of sensations, the patient must relax the muscles and breathe deeply and evenly.
Biomaterial is taken with a special sterile probeand applied to a special glass. After that, the glass is dried at room temperature and sent to the laboratory for examination. In the laboratory, glasses with smears are stained and viewed under a microscope. The results of the smear are usually prepared within 2-3 days after the test is submitted.
Immediately after the delivery of the smear, a woman can feel unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen, pain and watch the smearing discharge. It's not scary, the symptoms usually go away after a couple of hours.
Where to take a smear
When signs of infection appear, a woman canit is wrong to assess the presence of the disease. She can easily take it for thrush, and burning with urination - for cystitis. Often the girl learns that she is infected when the gonorrhea is detected in the partner. Therefore it is important to turn to the gynecologist in time and take the necessary tests.
For examination, consultation and delivery of smears you can go to the sexually transmitted disease clinic at your place of residence. But there is another way.
To pass the analysis on a gonorrhea probably in any femaleconsultations. The gynecologist performs an examination and, if necessary, can prescribe additional studies, such as colposcopy, oncocytology or additional tests for the detection of infections.
Men can hand over the analysis at the reference to the venereologist, to the urologist, in any paid laboratory or in the dermatovenerologic dispensary.
The Dermato-venereal Dispensary provides a full range of services for patients. Most of them can be obtained free of charge under the MHI policy.
Decoding of the smear for gonorrhea is madevenereologist. The analysis will reflect whether or not the gonorrhea is found. In some cases, it is written about finding (or not) gram-negative diplococci, this is also evidence of gonococcal infection.
It is not necessary to interpret the result of the smear yourself, it is recommended to consult a specialist for competent interpretation, interpretation of the analysis and the setting of an accurate diagnosis.
Smear on gonorrhea is important to give regularly, even in the absence of symptoms, since gonorrhea and many other infectious diseases can be asymptomatic.
Regular examinations and preventivelaboratory diagnostics do not take a lot of time, but thanks to them you can not only detect any disease and start treatment in time, but also eliminate the risk of its occurrence.