Size of facing bricks: standard. Sizes of single facing brick and one and a half
They began to use for erection of walls and for their facing from time immemorial, and the issue of modularity, standardization of dimensions touched this technology before others. The size of the facing brick was formed on the basis of construction experience and methods of its production.Differences in the sizes of bricks produced in different countries still exist now, but there is a standard in the areas where GOST and SNiPs operate.
Brick and stone
Documents containing building codes and standards give a clear definition of what a brick is. It is based primarily on the dimensions of the product: there is a single brick - 250x120x65 (mm), and a thickened one - 250x120x88 (mm). All products larger than these are referred to in the regulatory documents as stones.Bricks are full-bodied or have voids, stones - only hollow.
Increasing the size of ceramic blocks for masonry was dictated by the desire for greater speed of wall construction. This led to the fact that today the rational use of bricks of standard sizes only makes sense for cladding; it is impractical and uneconomical to build an entire array of walls made of artificial stones of small sizes. For this, a large number of various multi-hollow, porous ceramics is produced. Therefore, it is the size of the facing bricks that is most often meant when referring to a single or thickened (sometimes referred to as a half).
Ceramic bricks are now sometimes made by hand molding. This is done either in very poor countries where there is no opportunity for installing modern technological lines, or, conversely, to obtain a high-quality exclusive product with an incredible choice of color, texture and texture of the front surface. Although to talk about the complete exclusion from the technological process of machines and machines is not necessary.The size of the facing bricks in this case is not so rigidly standardized. There are also lengthy bricks (500-600 mm long), in combination with the usual ones, which give refinement and originality to the finished masonry.
To make the process of molding bricks as productive as possible, the size of the form for a separate block was historically chosen in such a way that it was easy to fill in at one time. Hence, approximately the same brick sizes of facing single and English, and German, and American production. It is conveniently and securely gripped with one hand when the mason, holding the trowel (trowel) in the other hand, applies and levels the masonry mortar.
Ceramic brick production
Modern technology uses several methods for the manufacture of ceramic building products. First of all, the clay mined in the quarry goes through a difficult preparatory stage, during which it removes contaminating particles from it and gives it a uniform, uniform structure.
The first main method of producing mass ceramic materials: bricks, stones, tiles, tiles, etc. is plastic.The prepared clay mass is moistened and stirred to a pasty state. Tape and vacuum presses form a clay bar, from which, in particular, red facing brick is cut. The dimensions of the raw billet for him have reserves for shrinkage and firing. So it turns out brick corpulent or with through holes.
To make a product with blind cavities or having embossed decorative surfaces, a semi-dry molding method is used. Unlike the first method, here you can also use low-plastic types of clay, which is also justified. Products from the semi-dry mixture are molded with high-pressure presses, which allows us to speed up the drying process or even to eliminate it — then we will immediately burn. It turns out facing brick, whose dimensions are maintained the same for a large batch of finished building materials.
The color of the finished ceramic product depends primarily on the chemical composition of the clay raw materials. Red clay contains more iron, sodium contains more light, and so on. Sometimes the use of bricks of different shades in brickwork gives an interesting visual effect.The main thing is that the dimensions of the facing yellow brick are the same as those of the peach or light brown.
The product obtained by autoclaving processing (using hot water vapor and high pressure) formed from a mixture of quartz sand and lime binder block, some experts (not without snobbery) try not to call a brick. Scopes of such artificial stones are limited to their low moisture resistance.
The tinting powders added to the mixture make it possible to produce blocks of various shades. The size of facing bricks of this type is tied to the standard sizes of ceramic, although thickened - 250x120x88 mm - is produced in much larger volumes than the single one.
Hyper pressed brick
Crushed limestone as a filler, cement as a binder, pigment additives, are the components from which, in several stages of pressing, a facing brick is made, the dimensions of which are accurate and stable to all fractions of a millimeter across all faces.
In such a brick all faces can be considered facial, and special strength and decorative characteristics allowapply it to the most demanding surfaces that may be exposed to severe weathering.
Private and facial
Artificial stones for the bulk of erected walls now look like that, to speak of them as a brick is impossible. Ordinary, or, as it is called, just building brick loses its relevance, if its size is the same as the size of the facing brick standard. Multi-hollow or porous stones replace by volume a few pieces of ordinary bricks, but weigh significantly less.
A brick, attributed by the manufacturer to facing with a smooth surface, must have at least two faces (most often it is a poke and spoons). This means that they have no chips, cracks or foreign inclusions, they are uniform in color.
Ways to decorate
There are many ways to decorate the front surface, for example, embossed designs that imitate leather, fabric, etc. In fashion, aged, vintage walls are picturesque cracks, as if weathered or washed by rain.
The front surfaces are sprayed - a layer of glass chips, sand, porcelain flour, etc. is put under pressure.Before roasting, raw material can be applied engobe - liquid white or colored clay, which after the furnace turns into a coating of high decorative quality. This can serve as glazing, the application of polymer coatings - design options are many. But also for such products the standard defining the size of a facing brick operates. What is important for maintaining durable ligation, reliable connection of the facing layer and the basic structure of the wall - all this is a guarantee of durability of the building.
The relationship of the sizes of facing bricks
The classic proportion of brick linear ratios is 1: 1/2: 1/4. An almost perfect cube can be obtained by placing four pairs of products on one another that have the dimensions of a single facing brick: 250x120x65 mm.
These figures were recorded in the domestic documents on building standardization in the mid-20s. The format began to be denoted by the NF - “normal format”, and already in the 30s, in the era of the deployment of mass construction, a thickened brick of the 1.4 NF format appeared, which was named one and a half. Its use throughout the country made it possible to achieve substantial savings in cement for mortars, and to speed up the construction process.