Severe Gydansky Peninsula: photo, where is located, climate
Even in the harsh climates in the corners of the vastThe earth has its own amazing natural features. One of such sections of Western Siberia, in particular the Gydan Peninsula, will be described in this article.
Before we find out where the Gydansky Peninsula is located, let's take a look at the features of one of the most famous peninsulas of these places - Yamalsky.
A little bit about Yamal
The peninsula, located in Western Siberia (to the north), is located on the Kara Sea. Dimensions of Yamal: width - 240 km, length - 700 km, area - 122 000 km².
The landscapes of the island vary depending on itslatitude. Almost here there is permafrost, the main part of the territory is represented by bogs and lakes. According to the relief, the surface of the peninsula is a plain, in some places rugged by ravines.
The shape of Yamal was formed over severalmillion years through changes in terrain, climatic conditions, soil cover, fauna and flora. In ancient times, the coastline was lower by 300-400 meters than the current level of the ocean. In those days, Eurasia, together with North America, represented a single large continent. Thermophilic forms of life gradually died out with a cooling climate, more resistant to cold species of flora and fauna.
The peculiarity of the topography of the peninsula is that it has a large number of terraces (it represents gradation). This is due to the intermittent decline in the level of the basin of the Arctic.
Gydan peninsula: photo, brief description
The peninsula, like the Yamal Peninsula, is washed by the watersKara Sea: in the west Ob and Taz Bay, in the east - the Yenisei Bay. It extends both in width and length by about 400 km. Low steep shores of it are actively washed by sea waves.
The low and shallow coast is heavily indented. Nearby are the islands: Sibiryakov, Shokalsky and Oleny (these are the largest neighbors). The Gydan peninsula represents one of the least studied parts of Russia.
This territory belongs to the Yamal-Nenetsautonomous region. The relief of the peninsula is mostly represented by elevations (about 200 meters above sea level) forming small Yavay and Mamont peninsulas projecting above the sea surface. Between them are lowlands, heavily waterlogged, and in the depths of land - bays (Gydanskaya Bay and Yuratskaya). In the lowlands stretch river valleys and lake basins.
The Gydan peninsula has a less developed lake network than Yamal, but here these natural reservoirs are deeper and partly tectonic in origin.
The rather arctic climate hasThe Gydan peninsula. The weather here is quite cold. The January average temperature of January is minus 26-30 ° C, and July - plus 4-11 ° C. On average, the amount of precipitation a year reaches up to 300 mm.
Flora and fauna
As in Yamal, the fauna and flora of Gydanskypeninsula is not too diverse. Vegetation here is relatively poor, mostly shrub tundra and moss-lichen, and on the southern part the forest-tundra extends.
A little more than on the Yamal Peninsula,freshwater fish (about 25 species), but fewer birds (about 36 species). Specific low and rugged northern coasts are favorable for reproduction of such birds as eider-birds and black goats. Among the animals live 5 species on the Red List: Lesser White-fronted Goose, Red-breasted Goose, small swan, walrus and polar bear.
The Gydan peninsula placed on itsthe unique nature reserve of the same name. It was formed to study and preserve the tundra of Western Siberia, coastal ecological systems of the sea and areas of extensive nesting of waders and other waterfowl.
The whole area of the reserve is 878 thousand hectares. The security zone is 150 thousand hectares. Here is such a wonderful natural attraction has the Gydan peninsula with its rather severe climate conditions.
The reserve is one of the youngest inTyumen region (established in 1996). It is located in the Tazovsky District of the Yamal-Nenets District on the territory of the Yawai, Mamont, Gydansky, Oleni peninsulas.
The frozen layer is 80 cm thick. It was here that the remains of the ancient mammoth were found, which are now in the Zoological Institute of St. Petersburg.
The structure of the peninsula
The Gydan peninsula in the north has 2 large gulfs (Gydansky Guba and Yuratskaya), dividing the Mamont peninsula from Yavaya.
The surface of the territory is composed of loose marineand glacial quaternary deposits. Mesozoic sedimentary deposits, located under them, have the richest reserves of oil and natural gas. There are many thermokarst lakes on the peninsula, the largest of which is called Yambuto.
The Gulf of (Gydan Bay), which goes deep intoGydan Peninsula, is located in the south of the Kara Sea. This place is between the Yenisei Bay and the Ob Bay. Its width is 62 kilometers, its length is about 200 kilometers. The bay has insignificant depths - from 5 to 8 meters. With winds (surges), the water level changes by 1-3 m.
Precipitation averages for the year fall to 300 mm. The river Gyda (Narmesala), originating from Lake Hosseinto, flows into the eastern part of the Kara Sea. Its current stretches to 60 kilometers along the tundra of the Gydan Peninsula.
There is practically no study of the hydrochemical features of the waters of this bay and the rivers flowing into the lip.