Rickets in a child - description, classification and treatment measures
Rickets is very widely, unfortunately,a common disease in young children of the first 2 years of life. Known this disease for a long time - even in the writings of Galen and Soran of Ephesus. Rickets are found everywhere, but most often - in the inhabitants of those northern countries, where there is a shortage of such necessary sunlight. Children that are born in the winter, are sick with rickets heavier and more often.
What is rickets?
Rickets is a disease of the body (general), thatmanifests a peculiar change in bone tissue. It is due to a temporary inconsistency in the needs of the body, which is growing, in phosphorus and calcium and the insufficiency of systems that ensure their delivery to the imperfect organism of the child. Rachitis is a manifestation of metabolic disorders with a bias in the metabolic disturbances of phosphorus and calcium, which is characterized by changes in existing processes of free radical lipid peroxidation (lipid peroxidation), metabolism of trace elements, proteins.
Vitamin D3 in rickets enters the body ininsufficient amounts, markedly disturbed its formation in the skin, there are failures of phosphorus-calcium metabolism in the liver, kidneys. Most often, rickets develop in babies born to or from mothers under the age of 17, or from women over the age of 35. Unbalanced nutrition of pregnant women is important, in which deficiency of calcium, phosphorus, protein, vitamins D and B1, B2, B6 develops. Often develops rickets in a child whose mother during pregnancy was not enough to stay in the sun, led a sedentary life, suffered extragenital diseases.
Rickets often occur in a child born withsigns of morphofunctional immaturity, a child from twins, premature or too large at birth. Often, rickets occur in kiddies with a sharp set of weight in the first months of their life. This disease succumbs to babies born from artificial feeding of kefir, cow's milk. The development of rickets is also promoted by the small motor regime.
Rickets are not just a disease, butreally a social and medical problem. After all, the incidence of children is directly related to the quality of their lives and the lives of their parents. Also, rickets are the cause of many other comorbid conditions in the baby. Among the severe and terrible consequences of rickets are osteomalacia, osteoporosis, posture disorder, myelofibrosis, multiple caries of all teeth, anemia. Often develop violations of motility of the gastrointestinal tract in the form of usual constipation, dyskinesia of the duodenum and bile ducts.
Classification of rickets
There are 3 degrees of rickets.
1 degree of severity - disorders from the vegetative system and the central nervous system: the child becomes fearful, irritable, restless, sweats, often shudders, the vascular system becomes a reactive system.
2 severity - marked changes withthe side of the bone system: the knolls are formed on the crown, the rachitic "rosary" (only on 5-8 ribs), the thorax is deformed. There is clearly pronounced muscular hypotension and a "frog stomach".
3 degree of severity - bones softenthe base of the skull, the sunken nose, the "forehead", the exophthalmos, the rough deformation of almost the whole thorax, the deformation of the spine, the epiphyses of the forearm bones and the phalanges of the fingers thicken gradually. Deformation of the lower extremities (namely, tubular bones) occurs. The time of the standard appearance and the order of the usual teething breaks.
How to treat rickets?
If rickets are found in the child, the following treatment measures are provided:
- restoration of underdeveloped phosphorus-calcium exchanges;
- elimination of metabolic acidosis;
- normalization of LPO processes;
- elimination of deficiency of missing vitamin D.
Also important are:
- the correct organization of the child's regime: stay on fresh air at least 2-3 hours daily, the room for the child - with regular airing;
- adapted food;
- exercise LFK, taking baths (hygienic), pouring, massage, wiping;
- drug therapy.
Rickets in a child - it's quite hard forparents. Therefore, in order for the baby to grow up healthy, it is necessary to use all known methods in time for the prevention of rickets. We need to pay special attention to physical development and hardening. In addition to regular walks in the air and hardening water procedures, massage and therapeutic gymnastics are of great importance, which should be done regularly, systematically, for a long time, with uniform and gradual increases in loads.
It should be remembered that rickets in children, like ricketsdogs, arises because of a deficiency of vitamin D. Therefore, it is important that in the food of both the first and second, there is enough calcium. Differs "dog" rickets from the human that each compaction, curvature, thickening of bones in small dogs is considered rickets. But the truth is rare. It is recommended to give dogs a special food with a lot of minerals and calcium. This is what is needed to stabilize the growth of bones. But if the rickets are strongly pronounced, you should definitely contact a specialist.